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American Ginseng Standardized Extract

American Ginseng Standardized Extract

COMMON NAME
Ginseng, American ginseng

LATIN NAME
Panax quinquefolium

ORIGIN
Canada, eastern US, Wisconsin, China

PART OF PLANT USED
Root

DESCRIPTION
Panax quinquefolium is a deciduous perennial shrub whose fleshy root requires 4 years of cultivation to reach maturity. Traditionally the wild root was consumed by American Indians as a general tonic, as a natural restorative for weak and wounded, and to help the mind. American ginseng is now used as a natural preventive and restorative remedy and valued for its adaptogenic properties. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) is more sedative and relaxing and increases "yin" energy while Korean ginseng is more stimulating and increases the "yang" energy. American ginseng is suitable for females and young people as well as males and older people.

HISTORICAL USES
CNS depressant, anticon-vulsant, analgesic, tranquilizing
Sedative, relaxant
Anti-fatigue (insomnia, nervousness, poor appetite)
Restorative for active or nervous, agitated disposition
Increase vitality in conditions of weakness, prolonged stress, poor immunity, or chronic disease
Hypotensive
Anti-stress
Anti-psychotic
Anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic
Increase gastro-intestinal motility
Increase synthesis of cholesterol in liver
Immune system stimulant
Regulate adrenal gland, inhibit exhaustion of gland
Regulate blood sugar and lipid levels
Anti-tumor

ACTIVE PROPERTIES
American ginseng has been used for stress and fatigue characterized by insomnia, poor appetite, nervousness, and restlessness. The root has been used for conditions of weakness, convalescence, low resistance, poor immunity or debility due to chronic disease. Scientific support is now emerging for its use in the regulation of various metabolic disturbances including blood sugar and lipid levels.

ACTIVE SUBSTANCES
Glycosides (Ginsenosides), saponins, phytosterol

PHARMACOLOGY
The main active ingredients of ginseng are the more than 20 saponin triterpenoid glycosides called ginsenosides whose names relate to their chromatographic position (Ra, Rb, etc.). American ginseng is rich in the Rb1 group of ginsenosides which have more sedative and metabolic effects on the central nervous system, compared to the Rg1 group of ginsenosides which are more arousing and stimulating. Rb1 Ginsenosides have CNS-depressing activity, have weak anti-inflammatory action, and increase digestive tract peristalsis. Laboratory animals given Rb1 ginsenosides have improved stamina and increased learning abilities. Other studies have shown Rb1 ginsenosides also have anti-fatigue, anti-convulsant, antipyretic, antipsychotic, analgesic, and ulcer protective effects.

TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRA-INDICATIONS
No reported toxicity

DIRECTIONS FOR USE
250-500 mg. extract (15%)/day
1-2 gm/day dried root

PROCESSING
4 year old roots are harvested and dried.

STANDARD
15% ginsenosides, mainly Rb1

ANALYSIS STANDARDIZED EXTRACT

Type StandardizationStandardized extract
15.11 (>=14.0)Ginsenoside Rg1- 1.57%
Ginsenoside Rb1 - 3.05%
ratio Rg1/Rb1 51-47%
Characterbrown-yellow amorphous powder
Loss on drying:3.85 (<=7.0)
pH5.35 (4.0 - 6.0)
Ash6.29 (<=9.0)
Heavy Metals<50.0 (<=50.0) ppm
Total residual organic solvents0.1 (<=2.0)
Total Aerobic Microbial count<1000.0 (<=1000.0) cfu/g
fungi<100.0 (<=100.0) cfu/g
staph aureus, salmonellaabsent
E. coliabsent



SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES

Baldwin, CS et al. (1986) What pharmacists should know about Ginseng. Pharm. J. Nov 8th:582.

Blumenthal, M (Ed.): The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. American Botanical Council. Austin, TX. 1998.

Brekhman, I.I. and Dardymov, I.V. (1969) New substances of plant origin which increase nonspecific resistance. Ann Rev Pharm. 9:419.

Hia, et al. (1979) Stimulation of pituitary adrenocortical system by ginseng saponins. Endocrinol. Japonica. 26(6):661.

Mowrey, D. (1990) Guaranteed Potency Herbs. A Compilation of writings on the subject.

Oshima, Y et al. (1987) J. Nat. Prod. 50:188.

Weiner, M. (1990) Weiner's Herbal. Mill Valley: Quantum Books.

 


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