Asthma is a chronic reactive disorder involving episodic reversible airway obstruction because of bronchospasms, increased mucus secretion and mucosal cell edema. This makes breathing out more difficult than breathing in, causing stale air to be retained with each new breath, leading to suffocation. Asthma may occur due to an allergy (atopic/extrinsic) or because of a respiratory infection (non-atopic/intrinsic). Both causes are equally common. Asthma attacks, the actual reactions, vary in duration, intensity and frequency. Attacks may be mild to life threatening, occur suddenly or with premonitory symptoms, and may occur at any time, even in sleep. Symptoms of airway obstruction can persist between acute episodes.
Asthma affects twice as many males as females from birth to 10 years of age; 50% of all cases begin in this age group. Another 33% of all cases begin between the ages of 10 and 30, affecting males and females equally.
If allergic, the best treatment, if possible, is prevention by elimination of the causative agent from the person's environment. If related to infection, treatment with antibiotics and vaccines may be tried. Bronchodilators such as epinephrine, desensitization injections, breathing exercises, and/or biofeedback may also be prescribed.
The primary cause of Asthma is still unclear. It is suspected irritants cause bronchoconstriction due to a malfunctioning autoimmune reflex mechanism. This involves decreasing chemical inhibition which allows asthma reaction mediators, such as histamine, to rise.
Smooth muscles then undergo spasmodic contractions, swelling in membranes that line the bronchial tubes is promoted, and increased mucus secretion occurs.
Since both types of asthma may coexist, the following predisposing factors are not explicitly isolated to their designated categories:
Allergens such as:
Pollen House dust Fungal spores Animal dander Kapok or feather pillows Aspirin
Specific foods, especially dairy products such as milk & eggs
Exercise Bacteria Emotional stress Fatigue Endocrine changes Chronic lung disease Pulmonary edema Congestive heart failure Temperature and humidity changes Exposure to noxious fumes and other irritants, especially industrial fumes and air pollution
Signs & Symptoms
Hyperresonant lung fields
Coughing with thick, tenacious sputum that may be clear or yellow
Inability to speak more than a few words without taking a breath
Difficult inspiration with more difficult expiration
Rapid pulse (although breathing rate may be normal)
Obvious use of accessory respiratory muscles
Tightness in chest
Structure & Function: Immune System Support
Adult Child/Adolescent Calcium 500 - 1,000 mg 200 - 500 mg EPO 2 - 3 g 1 - 2 g Fish oils* Garlic* Ginkgo biloba* Lecithin* Magnesium 200 - 500 mg 100 - 300 mg Niacin 50 - 200 mg 10 - 100 mg Proanthocyanidins* Vitamin B6* Vitamin B12* Vitamin C 2,000 - 6,000 mg 1,000 - 3,000 mg Vitamin E* Luteolin*
Please refer to the respective topic for specific nutrient amounts.
The recent explosion of interest in both antioxidants and fatty acids has added considerably to the choices available.
Favorite bioflavonoids tend to be: quercetin and rutin.
Other leading antioxidants mentioned include: vitamin E and pycnogenol™.
Besides Evening Primrose Oil (EPO), other fatty acids, particularly from fish, may prove useful.
Trace minerals which have been cited include: molybdenum, selenium and zinc (which is sensitive also to copper levels).
Other plant products and their derivatives include: bee pollen, garlic, ginkgo biloba and lecithin.
Reynolds, R.D., Natta, C.L. Depressed plasma pyridoxal phosphate concentrations in adult asthmatics. Am J Clin Nutr. 41 (1985): 684-688.
Note: All amounts are in addition to those supplements having a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Due to individual needs, one must always be aware of a possible undetermined effect when taking nutritional supplements. If any disturbances from the use of a particular supplement should occur, stop its use immediately and seek the care of a qualified health care professional.
Asthma can be a symptom of food allergies. Other manifestations of food allergies are itchy eyes, rash, hay fever, headache, diarrhea, vomiting and eczema. The most allergenic foods are fruit juices, nuts and milk. Shellfish, eggs and chocolate provoke asthma in sensitive individuals. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) can provoke asthma in sensitive individual within a few hours of consumption. The Elimination Diet should be used to identify the offending substance or substances. The allergen can then be excluded from the diet.
Food reactions are a common problem, initiating an attack. However, reactions may be immediate or delayed. Eggs, fish, shellfish, nuts and peanuts tend to evoke an instantaneous reaction, while delayed response may result from consuming: milk, chocolate, wheat, citrus fruits and food colorings or additives.
The elimination of food additives is also vitally important to the control of asthma. These cover: dyes and preservatives, notably sulphites. Another classic substance capable of inducing anaphylactic shock is MSG. Classic outbreaks occur with salad bars and Chinese restaurants.
Allergy to cow’s milk is often cited and seems to have been confirmed, for some infants with severe immune reactivity. Some authorities have down-played the role of immunoglobulin in favor of histamine.
Part of the problem with food intolerance may stem from low stomach acid. Possibly for this reason, vitamin B12 therapy is a mainstay for treating childhood asthma. It may, however, be most effective in weekly intramuscular injections.
Certain ethnic groups have a high incidence of asthma, such as in Puerto Rican children. This cannot be explained. It is not only higher than caucasians but also other Hispanic groups.
Exposure to cobalt has also been identified, which may impact vitamin B12.
On the positive side, favorable results have been identified through consumption of fish, or fish oil products. This seems to operate via arachidonic acid metabolism. Also, magnesium seems to counteract stress, which is often associated with attacks of asthma. Arachidonic acid is unique to animal products and forms leukotrienes, which are more potent stimulators of bronchial constriction than even histamine. Vegan diets, consequently, have been tried and achieved some success, although benefits may require several months to a full year in some resistant cases. Garlic and onions are also thought to work by inhibiting leukotrienes. Selenium is also useful in reducing leukotriene formation.
A common kitchen spice (capsicum) may even break an acute attack.
Vitamin C also helps with fatty acid metabolism, besides its better-known role as an antioxidant. Other antioxidants, like carotenes benefit the epithelial lining of the respiratory tract, or vitamin E inhibits the formation of inflammatory compounds.
Children with asthma may have a defect in tryptophan metabolism, which can be corrected with vitamin B6 supplements. Adults may also benefit.
Magnesium relaxes bronchial smooth muscle.
SEE ALSO - BRONCHITIS
1.* Lobelia inflata - 30X to 30C
2.* Eucalyptus globulus tinct. - 30X to 30C
3.* Adrenalinum - 30X to 30C a bronchodilator
4.* Grindelia robusta (squarrosa) - 30X to 30C - good for wheezing
5. Ipecacuanha - 30C or higher
6.* Badiaga - 6X for 4 days, then 30C - for thick cough, with wheezing
Doses cited are to be administered on a 3X daily schedule, unless otherwise indicated. Dose usually continued for 2 weeks. Liquid preparations usually use 8-10 drops per dose. Solid preps are usually 3 pellets per dose. Children use 1/2 dose.
X = 1 to 10 dilution - weak (triturition)
C = 1 to 100 dilution - weak (potency)
M = 1 to 1 million dilution (very strong)
X or C underlined means it is most useful potency
Asterisk (*) = Primary remedy. Means most necessary remedy. There may be more than one remedy - if so, use all of them.
Boericke, D.E., 1988. Homeopathic Materia Medica.
Coulter, C.R., 1986. Portraits of Homeopathic Medicines.
Kent, J.T., 1989. Repertory of the Homeopathic Materia Medica.
Koehler, G., 1989. Handbook of Homeopathy.
Shingale, J.N., 1992. Bedside Prescriber.
Smith, Trevor, 1989. Homeopathic Medicine.
Ullman, Dana, 1991. The One Minute (or so) Healer.
Calc. Fluor. asthma with yellow, lumpy expectorant; Calc. Phos. Bronchial asthma, childhood asthma; Kali Mur asthma with digestive disorders present; Kali Phos. Principal remedy - nervous asthma; Mag. Phos. asthma with flatulkence, restriction of the chest, spasms; Nat. Mur. asthma with clear, frothy expectoirant, runny eyes and nose; Nat. Sulf. asthma in youth, worse from damp weather, greenish-yellow coating on the root of the tongue; Silicea Hay asthma, onset of itchy, tingling nose;
4 tablets every 15 minutes during the acute stage, otherwise 3 or 4 times daily.
Angelica sinensis or Dong Quai
Chickweed (Stellaria media)
Licorice Root (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
Mullein Leaves (Verbascum thapsus)
Pleurisy Root (Asclepius tuberosa)
Slippery Elm Bark (Ulmus fulva)
Wild Cherry Bark (Prunus virginiana)
Note: The misdirected use of an herb can produce severely adverse effects, especially in combination with prescription drugs. This Herbal information is for educational purposes and is not intended as a replacement for medical advice.
Angelica (Angelica sinensis or Dong Quai) inhibits the asthmatic response to inhaled antigens (dander, pollen etc.).
Chamomile is given during an asthma attack because it is antispasmodic and sedative. It is suited for babies and young children.
Chickweed (Stellaria media) has been a popular folk medicine for respiratory problems. It is an antibiotic against certain respiratory pathogens.
Ephedra is the main component of ephedrine (60 mg every 4 - 6 hours). It is stimulating (raising blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output) but also has possible cardiac and teratogenic effects, so should be avoided altogether if pregnant.
Chinese medicine includes Ephedra (ephedrine) for asthma, although its usage needs to be carefully monitored, so that there is not over-stimulation nor weakening of the adrenal glands. Hence, traditional herbal combinations would provide support for the adrenals: licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and ginseng (Panax ginseng). They would also contain an expectorant (facilitate the release of secretions from the respiratory tract) such as: lobelia (Lobelia) or sundew (Drosera rotundifolia).
As with prescription medications, chronic use may require additional support, including potassium since licorice can deplete potassium stores.
Chinese skullcap (Scutellaria baicelensis) is rich in flavonoids, operating as an antioxidant to scavenge free radicals.
From Japan, there has always been an appreciation for green tea (Thea sinensis) which has antioxidant properties.
Euphorbia is commonly called the "asthma weed". It relieves spasm and can prevent asthma spasms if taken regularly.
Hyssop is valued for its essential oil which is valued against asthma and other respiratory disorders e.g. bronchitis.
Licorice Root inhibits two enzymes involved in asthma. (Inoue) Its antitussive effect has also been compared with that of codeine.
Mullein Leaves (Verbascum thapsus) soothes mucus membranes and also has expectorant properties.
Pleurisy Root (Asclepius tuberosa) earned its reputation during centuries of folk medicine. It acts specifically on respiration.
Slippery Elm Bark (Ulmus fulva) Its mucilage is beneficial for the throat (as well as the digestive tract).
Wild Cherry Bark (Prunus virginiana) is an expectorant which relieves respiratory distress.
Olive leaf and Yellow Jasmine root have not received approval status by the German Commission E as bronchodilators.
Blumenthal, M (Ed.): The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. American Botanical Council. Austin, TX. 1998.
Hoffmann, D: The New Holistic Herbal. Element, 1983. Third edition 1990.
Inoue, H et al., Inhibitory effect of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives on lipoxygenase and prostaglanding synthetase. Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 1986, 34:901.
Walji, H: Asthma & Allergies. Kian Press, 1997.
Aromatherapy - Essential Oils
Clary Sage Essence Hyssop Essence Laurel Essence Pine Essence Sage Essence Thyme Essence
Related Health ConditionsAbstracts
Adinoff, A: "Environmental Controls and Immunotherapy in the Treatment of Chronic Asthma.” Journal of Asthma, 1990;27 (5):277-289.
Alpers, D.H., R.E. Clouse, & W.F. Stenson. 1983. Manual of Nutritional Therapeutics. Little, Brown, and Company, Boston. 457 pp.
Amatuni, V.G. & M.D. Safarian. Determination of Correlations Between Oxidant and Antioxidant Systems in Asthma. Tev Arkh, 56(1984).
Anderson, R. et al: Ascorbic acid in bronchial asthma. S.A. Med. J. 1983, 63: 132 - 137.
Anonymous: "Intravenous Magnesium for Bronchial Asthma", Schweiz. Med. Wschr., 1989;119(46):1633-1635.
Anonymous: Executive summary from the report: analysis of adverse reactions to monosodium glutamate (MSG). J-Nutr. 1995 Nov; 125(11): 2891S-2906S
Arm, J.P. et al: The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on asthmatic responses to antigen. J. Clin. Allergy, 1988, 81: 183.
Ayres, J.G.: Alcohol and asthma. Immunol. Allergy Pract. 1988, 19(11): 423 - 434.
Becker, A.B. et al: The bronchodilator effects and pharmacokinetics of caffeine in asthma. NEJM. 1984, 310(12): 743 - 746.
Bekier, E. & Maslinski, C.Z.: Antihistaminic action of nicotinamide. Agents Actions, 1974, 4(3): 196.
Bland, Jeffrey. Nutraerobics. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1983.
Bland, Jeffrey. Medical Applications of Clinical Nutrition. New Canaan, Conn.: Keats, 1983.
Bock, S.A.: Food-related asthma and basic nutrition. J. Asthma, 1983, 20: 377 - 381.
Bohmer-T. : [Magnesium in lung diseases]. Tidsskr-Nor-Laegeforen. 1995 Mar 10; 115(7): 827-8.
Bray, S.A.: The hypochlorhydra of asthma in childhood. Q. J. Med. 1931, 24: 181 - 197.
Bray, W. Hypochlorhydria of Infancy. Qtly J Of Medicine, 34 (1948).
Broughton KS et al., Reduced asthma symptoms with n-3 fatty acid ingestion are related to 5-series leukotriene production.Am J Clin Nutr, 1997 Apr, 65:4, 1011-7.
Brunner, E.H. et al: Effect of parenteral magnesium on pulmonary function, plasma cAMP and histamine in bronchial asthma. J. Asthma, 1985, 22: 3 - 11.
Bucca, C. et al: "Effect of Vitamin C on Histamine Bronchial Responsiveness of Patients With Allergic Rhinitis. Annals of Allergy, October 1990;65:311-314.
Burney, P.G. et al: Response to inhaled histamine and 24 hour sodium excretion. BMJ. 1986, 292: 1483 - 1486.
Burney, P.G. et al: The effect of changing dietary sodium on the bronchial response to histamine. Thorax, 1989, 44(1): 36 - 41.
Bylin, G. et al: No influence of acetylcysteine on gas exchange and spirometry in chronic asthma. Eur. J. Respir. Dis. 1987, 71(2): 102 - 107.
Carter-Pokras-OD & Gergen-PJ.: Reported asthma among Puerto Rican, Mexican-American, and Cuban children, 1982 through 1984. Am-J-Public-Health. 1993 Apr; 83(4): 580-2.
Caruselli, M. [Upon therapy for asthma using B12.] Riforma Medica (Naples). JAMA, 1952, 150(17): 1731 (Abstract)
Chyrek-Borowska, S. et al: The relation between magnesium, blood histamine level and eosinophilia in the acute stage of the allergic reactions in humans. Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp.9Warsz.) 1978, 26(1-6): 709 - 712.
Clemetson, C.A. : Histamine and ascorbic acid in human blood. J. Nutr. 1980, 110(4): 662 - 668.
Collip, P.J. et al: Pyridoxine treatment of childhood asthma. Ann. Allergy, 1975, 35: 93 - 97.
Crane, J. et al: "Worldwide Worsening Wheezing -- Is the Cure the Cause?" The Lancet, March 28, 1992;339:814.
Crocket, J.A.: Cyanocobalamin in asthma. Acta Allergolica, 1957, XI: 261 - 268.
Delport, R. et al: Vitamin B6 nutritional status in asthma: the effect of theophylline therapy on plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate and pyridoxal levels. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 1988, 58(1): 67 - 72.
Dorsch, W. et al: Antiasthmatic effects of onion extracts: Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1985, 107: 17 - 24.
Dorsch, W. et al: Adverse effects of acetylcysteine on human and guinea pig bronchial asthma in vivo and on human fibroblasts and leukocytes in vitro. Int. Arch. Allergy App. Immunol. 1987, 82(1): 33 - 39.
Duke, J.A. & Ayensu, E.S.: Medicinal Plants of China, Reference Pbns, Algonac, MI. 1985.
Falkner, D. et al: Serum magnesium levels in asthmatic patients during acute exacerbations of asthma. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 1992, 10(1): 1 - 3.
Flatt, A. et al: "Reduced Selenium in Asthmatic Subjects in New Zealand." Thorax, 1990;45:95-99.
Fontana, V. J.: "Avoidance Therapy: Time-Tested Methods to Treat Asthma." Family Practice Recertification, November 1990;12(11):71-87.
Freedman, B.J. A diet free from additives in the management of allergic disease. Clin. Allergy, 1977, 7: 417 - 421.
Gong, H. Jr. et al: Bronchodilator effects of caffeine in coffee. A dose-response study of asthmatic subjects. Chest, 1986, 89(3): 335 - 342.
Green, S.M. & Rothrock, S.G.: Intravenous magnesium for acute asthma: failure to decrease emergency treatment duration or need for hospitalization. Ann. Emerg. Med. 1992, 21(3): 260 - 265.
Hamilton, H.K. ed. 1982. Professional Guide To Diseases Intermed Communications Inc. pub, Springfield, Massachusetts. 1323 pp.
Haury, V.G.: Blood serum magnesium in bronchial asthma and its treatment by the administration of magnesium sulfate. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1940,26: 340 - 344.
Hasselmark, L. et al: Lowered platelet glutathione peroxidase activity in patients with intrinsic asthma. Allergy, 1990, 45: 523 - 527.
Heinerman, John, Ph.D., 1982. Herbal Dynamics. Root of Life, Inc.: Publ. Hutchinson, M. Nutrition and Cancer: Prevention and Treatment. Alas. Journal Of Medical Sicence, 21 (1984).
Hill-DJ & Hosking-CS.: The cow milk allergy complex: overlapping disease profiles in infancy. Eur-J-Clin-Nutr. 1995 Sep; 49 Suppl 1: S1-12.
Hoj, L. et al: A double-blind controlled trial of elemental diet in severe, perennial asthma. Allergy, 1981, 36: 257 - 262.
Hunt, L. W. & Rosenow, E. C., III: "Asthma-Producing Drugs." Annals of Allergy, June 1992;68:453-462.
Javaid, A. et al: Effect of dietary salt on bronchial reactivity to histamine in asthma. BMJ. 1988, 297: 454.
Juergens, U. R. et al: "Arachidonic Acid Metabolism in Monocytes of Aspirin-Sensitive Asthmatic Patients Before and After Oral Challenge." Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, October 1992;90(4)/Part I:636-645.
Juniper, E.F. et al: Airways responsiveness to histamine and methacholine: relationship to minimum treatment to control symptoms of asthma. Thorax, 1981, 36(8): 575 - 579.
Kirschmann, J.D. 1990. Nutrition Almanac: Nutrition Search. McGrew-Hill: New York.
Kivity, S. et al: The effect of caffeine on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Chest, 1990, 97(5): 1083 - 1085.
Kleijnen, J., et al: "Acupuncture and Asthma: A Review of Controlled Trials." Thorax, 1991; 46: 799-802.
Kunz, J.R.M. 1982. The American Medical Association Family Medical Guide. Random House Pub, New York. 832 pp.
Laganiere, S. & Fernandes, G. : High peroxidizability of subcellular membrane induced by high fish oil diet is reversed by vitamin E. Clin. Res. 1987, 35: A565.
Lauwerys-R & Lison-D: Health risks associated with cobalt exposure--an overview. Sci-Total-Environ. 1994 Jun 30; 150(1-3): 1-6.
Leichsenring M et al., (n-6)-Fatty acids in plasma lipids of children with atopic bronchial asthma. Pediatr Allergy Immunol, 1995 Nov, 6:4, 209-12.
Lindahl, O. et al: Vegan diet regimen with reduced medication in the treatment of bronchial asthma. J. Asthma, 1985, 22: 45 - 55.
Lundberg, J.M. & Saria, A.: Capsaicin-induced desensitization of airway mucosa to cigarette smoke, mechanical and chemical irritants. Nature, 1983, 302: 251 - 253.
Maisel, F.E. & Somkin, E. : Treatment of asthmatix paroxysm with nicotinic acid. J. Allergy, 1942, 13: 397 - 403.
Malo, J.L. et al: Lack of acute effects of ascorbic acid on spirometry and airway responsiveness to histamine in subjects with asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 1986, 78(6): 11532 - 11558.
McCarty, M.: Can dietary selenium reduce leukotriene production? Med. Hypoth. 1984, 13: 45 - 50.
Medici-TC. Et al: Are asthmatics salt-sensitive? A preliminary controlled study. Chest. 1993 Oct; 104(4): 1138-43.
Melton, G. : Treatment of asthma by nicotinic acid. BMJ. 1943: 600 - 601.
Millman, M. et al: Use of acetylcysteine in bronchial asthma - another look. Ann. Allergy, 1985, 54(4): 294 -296.
Mohsenin, V. et al: Effect of ascorbic acid on response to metacholine chalenge in asthmatic subjects. Am. Rev. Respir. Dos. 1983, 127: 143 - 147.
Mohsenin, V. & DuBois, A.B. : Vitamin C and airways. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1987, 498: 259 - 268.
Mollify, N.A. et al: "The Effect of Air Pollution on Allergic Bronchial Responsiveness." Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 1992;22:667-672.
Monteleone CA & Sherman AR: Nutrition and asthma. Arch Intern Med, 1997 Jan 13, 157:1, 23-34.
Morrison, J.B.: "Chronic Asthma and Improvement With Relaxation Induced by Hypnotherapy." Journal of The Royal Society of Medicine, December 1988;81:701-704.
Murray, M.T., & J.E. Pizzorno. 1991. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. Rocklin, Ca; Prima Publishing.
Noppen, M. et al: "Bronchodilating Effect of Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate in Acute Severe Bronchial Asthma.” Chest, 1990;97:373-376.
Oehling, A.: Importance of food allergy in childhood asthma. Allergol. Immunopathol. S. 1981, IX: 71 - 73.
Ogle, K.A. & Bullocks, J.D.: Children with allergic rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma treated with elimination diet: a five year follow-up. Ann. Allergy, 1980, 44: 273 - 278.
Olusi, S.O. et al: Plasma and white blood cell ascorbic acid concentrations in patients with bronchial asthma. Clinica Chimica Acta, 1979, 92(2): 161 - 166.
Onorato, J. et al: Placebo-controlled double-blind challenege in asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 1986, 78(6): 1139 - 1146.
Papaioannou, R. & Pfeiffer, C.C.: Sulfite sensitivity - unrecognized threat. Is molybdenum the cause? J. Orthomol. Psychiatry, 1984, 13(2): 105 - 110.
Pelikan, Z. & Pelikan-Filipek, M.: Bronchial response to the food ingestion challenge. Ann. Allergy, 1987, 58(3): 164 - 172.
Petrov, D. & Stoeva, N.: [Sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium metabolism in patients with allergic-infectious bronchial asthma.] Vutr. Boles. 1984, 23(1): 85 - 90. [Bulgarian]
Picado, C. et al: Effects of fish oil enriched diet on aspirin intolerant asthmatic patients: a pilot study. Thorax, 1988, 43(2): 93 - 97.
Regtop, H. Dietary Antioxidants and Inflammatory Disease. Yearbook Of Nutritional Medicine: 1984. New Canaan, Conn.: 1985.
Rappaport, E.M.: Achlorhydria: associated symptoms and response to hydrochloric acid. NEJM. 1955, 252(19): 802 - 805.
Reynolds, R.D. & Natta, C.L.: Depressed plasma pyridoxal phosphate concentrations in adult asthmatics. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1985, 41: 684 - 688.
Robbins, S.L. & R.S. Cotran. 1979. Pathologic Basis of Disease. 2nd ed. Saunders Pub Co., Philadelphia. 1598 pp.
Schachter, E.N. & Schlesinger, A. : The attenuation of exercise-induced bronchospasm by ascorbic acid. Ann. Allergy, 1982, 49(3): 146 - 151.
Schwartz-J & Weiss-ST.: Dietary factors and their relation to respiratory symtpoms. The Second National Health and Nutrition Survey. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1990, 132(1): 67 - 76.
Schwartz-J & Weiss-ST.: The relationship of dietary fish intake to level of pulmonary function in the first National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES I) [see comments]. Eur-Respir-J. 1994 Oct; 7(10): 1821-4.
Schwartz-J & Weiss-ST.: Relationship of skin test reactivity to decrements in pulmonary function in children with asthma or frequent wheezing. Am-J-Respir-Crit-Care-Med. 1995 Dec; 152(6 Pt 1): 2176-80.
Seelig, M.S., et al: "Magnesium and Other Nutritional Clinical Deficiencies in Immunologic Abnormalities Including Allergies and Neoplasms." Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1993; 12(5):579 / Abst: 7.
Seelig-MS. : Consequences of magnesium deficiency on the enhancement of stress reactions; preventive and therapeutic implications (a review). J-Am-Coll-Nutr. 1994 Oct; 13(5): 429-46.
Simon, R.A. et al: Sulfite-sensitive asthma. Res. Inst. Scripps Clin. Scientif. Rep. 192-3, 39: 57 - 58.
Simon, S.W.: Vitamin B12 therapy in allergy and chronic dermatoses. J. Allergy, 1951, 2: 183 - 185.
Singh, V. et al: "Effect of Yoga Breathing Exercises (Pranayama) on Airway Reactivity in Subjects With Asthma.” The Lancet, June 9, 1990;335:1381-1383.
Skobeloff, E. M. et al: "Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate For the Treatment of Acute Asthma in The Emergency Department." JAMA, September 1, 1989;262(9):1210-1213.
Spitzer, W. O et al.: "The Use of B-Agonists and the Risk of Death and Near Death From Asthma." The New England Journal of Medicine, February 20, 1992;326(8):501-506.
Sporik, R. et al: "Exposure to House-Dust Mite Allergen (Der p I) and The Development of Asthma in Childhood, New England Journal of Medicine, August 23, 1990;323(8):502-7.
Spurlock, B. W.& Dailey, T. M: "Shortness of (Fresh) Breath - Toothpaste-Induced Bronchospasm.” The New England Journal of Medicine, December 27, 1990;323(26):1845-1846.
Stanescu, D : "Yoga Breathing Exercise and Bronchial Asthma",., The Lancet, November 10, 1900;1192.
Stenius-Aarniala, B. et al: Symptomatic effects of evening primrose oil, fish oil and olive oil in patients with bronchial asthma. Ann. Allergy, 1985, 55: 330. (Abstract)
Subak-Sharpe, G.J. 1984. The Physician's Manual For Patients. Times Books Pub, New York. 607 pp.
Tseng, R. Y.M. et al: “Particulate Air Pollution and Hospitalization for Asthma." Annals of Allergy, May 1992;68:425-432.
Tseng, R.Y.M. and Li, C.K.: "Low Level Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide Pollution in Childhood Asthma." Annals of Allergy, November 1990;65:379-383.
Ubbink, J.B. et al: The relationship between B6 metabolism, asthma, and theophylline therapy. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1990, 585: 285 - 294.
Utell, M. J. et al: "Air Pollution and Asthma: Clinical Studies With Sulfuric Acid Aerosols." Allergy Proceedings, 1991;12(6);385-388.
Utz, G. & Hauck, A.M.: Oral application of calcium and vitamin D2 in allergic bronchial asthma. MMW. 1976, 116(43): 1395 - 1398.
Vanderhoek,J. et al: Inhibition of fatty acid lipoxygenases by onion and garlic oils. Evidence for the mechanism by which these oils inhibit platelet aggregation. Bioch. Pharmacol. 1980, 29(3): 169 - 173.
Walji, Hasnain, 1993. Asthma and Hayfever - Combining Orthodox & Complementary Approaches. Hodder Headline Plc.London.
Wantke-F. Et al: [The histamine-free diet]. Hautarzt. 1993 Aug; 44(8): 512-6.
Weitzman, M. et al: "Maternal Smoking and Childhood Asthma." Pediatrics, April 1990;85(4):505-511.
Wright, J. & Littleton, K. : Defects in sulphur metabolism. Int. Clin. Nutr. Rev. 1989, 9(3): 118 - 119.
Wright, J.V.: Treatment of childhood asthma with parenteral vitamin B12, gastric re-acidification and attention to food allergy, magnesium and pyridoxine: Three case reports with background and an integrated hypothesis. J. Nutr. Med. 1990, 1: 277 - 282.
- Product Categories
- Detox & Immunity
- Digestive Health
- Joint Health
- Weight Loss
- Popular Products
- CellRenew Collagen Hyaluronic Acid
- Foundation Blue-Green Algae
- Dream Health System
- Liver Cleanse
- Reference Materials
- Product Testimonials
- Health Journal Archive
- Health Briefs
- Health Basics
- Frequent Product Q&A's
- Med-Scope (health database)
- Health Conditions
- Natural Solutions
- Alternative Therapies
- Toxicity Sources
- Foods Advice
- Anatomy & Fitness
We test only on humans