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Mononucleosis

Mononucleosis

Description

Mononucleosis is a viral disease primarily affecting organs of the lymphatic system, although other organs of the body are susceptible. Classically, the virus invades the lymphatic tissue of the neck and throat, leading to enlarged lymph nodes, the hallmark of the disease.

Diagnosis is usually confirmed by a positive blood test for increased numbers of white blood cells, 10-20% of which are virus-transformed.

The disease is most commonly seen in young adults between the ages of 15 to 25. When contracted in early childhood, mononucleosis is often asymptomatic. It is mildly contagious, most commonly transmitted via the saliva.

Mononucleosis is a self-limiting disease, and is not considered dangerous. In many individuals, symptoms clear up in to two to four weeks, although symptoms may linger for up to six months.

Recurrence of the disease within the first year is common, but unusual after that time period; complications are rare.

There is no medical treatment for this disease. Antibiotics can only treat secondary bacterial infections and not the primary cause. Therapy is directed towards symptomatic relief. Bed rest is advisable to hasten recovery.

Causes

Epstein-Barr virus

Modes of transmission:

Saliva
Mucus secretions
Blood transfusions

Signs & Symptoms

Incubation period
30 to 50 days for adults
10 to 14 days for children

Initial signs and symptoms
Headache
Malaise
Fatigue
Rash (rare)

Later signs and symptoms
Sore throat
Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpit, and groin
Fever, usually 101 to 103 degrees Fahrenheit
Enlarged spleen
Jaundice

Complications
Although complications are rare, when they occur, they may include:

Splenic rupture
Hepatitis
Anemia
Viral invasion of the central nervous system

Nutritional Supplements

Structure & Function:
        Immune System Support &
        Intestinal Health


---------------------------------
General Supplements
---------------------------------

AdultChild/Adolescent
Vitamin C500 - 2,000 mg 500 - 2,000 mg
Vitamin E100 - 400 IU 100 - 400 IU
Zinc 10 - 20 mg 10 - 20 mg



* Please refer to the respective topic for specific nutrient amounts.

Note: All amounts are in addition to those supplements having a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Due to individual needs, one must always be aware of a possible undetermined effect when taking nutritional supplements. If any disturbances from the use of a particular supplement should occur, stop its use immediately and seek the care of a qualified health care professional.

Dietary Considerations

The sore throat which accompanies mononucleosis may be alleviated by drinking milk shakes, fruit juices and broths, or by ingesting cool non-irritating foods. Ingestion of additional fluids is important for rehydrating the body after a fever.

No diet is specifically prescribed for mononucleosis by the American Dietetics Association. Barring any underlying health condition, a Dietary Goals Diet should be followed to provide all the nutrients necessary for building a sound and disease-resistant body.

In most cases, mononucleosis is a mild disease, and nutritional management is geared toward symptomatic relief. However, if the affliction persists for months, the dietary measures outlined for chronic infection should be followed.

See Infection - Dietary Considerations.

Homeopathic Remedy

Epstein-Barr Virus - infectious mononucleosis, "mono"

1. Mercurialis perennis

Treatment Schedule

Doses cited are to be administered on a 3X daily schedule, unless otherwise indicated. Dose usually continued for 2 weeks. Liquid preparations usually use 8-10 drops per dose. Solid preps are usually 3 pellets per dose. Children use 1/2 dose.

Legend

X = 1 to 10 dilution - weak (triturition)
C = 1 to 100 dilution - weak (potency)
M = 1 to 1 million dilution (very strong)
X or C underlined means it is most useful potency

Asterisk (*) = Primary remedy. Means most necessary remedy. There may be more than one remedy - if so, use all of them.

References

Boericke, D.E., 1988. Homeopathic Materia Medica.

Coulter, C.R., 1986. Portraits of Homeopathic Medicines.

Kent, J.T., 1989. Repertory of the Homeopathic Materia Medica.

Koehler, G., 1989. Handbook of Homeopathy.

Shingale, J.N., 1992. Bedside Prescriber.

Smith, Trevor, 1989. Homeopathic Medicine.

Ullman, Dana, 1991. The One Minute (or so) Healer.

Herbal Approaches

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Herbs
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Echinacea
Garlic
Gentian root
Peach bark
Thyme

Note: The misdirected use of an herb can produce severely adverse effects, especially in combination with prescription drugs. This Herbal information is for educational purposes and is not intended as a replacement for medical advice.

Discussion:

Echinacea and Garlic clear infected lymph glands.

Aromatherapy - Essential Oils

With this sort of condition, it is a question of which symptom to treat, first. One can usually select muscle fatigue, or depression, or insomnia, not forgetting poor memory!

Depression:

Geranium Essence,Grapefruit Essence,
Rose Essence,Tangerine Essence.



Insomnia:

Chamomile Essence,Clary Sage Essence,
Lemon Essence,Marjoram Essence,
Sandalwood Essence.



Muscle Fatigue:

Cypress Essence,Eucalyptus Essence,
Grapefruit Essence,Marjoram Essence,
Peppermint Essence,Rosemary Essence,
(Red) Thyme Essence.



Poor Memory:

Basil Essence,Bergamot Essence,
Grapefruit Essence,Lavender Essence,
Neroli Essence,Rosemary Essence.



Related Health Conditions

AcheCirrhosis
ColdDepression
FatigueIcterus
InfectionRash
Sore throat



Abstracts

References

Bailey DM et al., Recovery from infectious mononucleosis after altitude training in an elite middle distance runner. Br J Sports Med, 1997 Jun, 31:2, 153-4.

Bailey-RE.: Diagnosis and treatment of infectious mononucleosis. Am-Fam-Physician. 1994 Mar; 49(4): 879-88.

Buchwald D et al., Functional status in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, other fatiguing illnesses, and healthy individuals. Am J Med, 1996 Oct, 101:4, 364-70.

Chasroff, I.J. & J.W. Ellis. 1983. Family Medical Guide. William Morrow and Company Inc., Pub. 594 pp.

Connelly,P.K. & DeWitt, LD: Neurologic complications of infectious mononucleosis. Pediatr. Neurol.1994 May, 10(3):181-4.

Ganzel TM et al., Otolaryngologic clinical patterns in pediatric infectious mononucleosis. Am J Otolaryngol, 1996 Nov-Dec, 17:6, 397-400.

Hall SR & Smith AP Behavioural effects of infectious mononucleosis. Neuropsychobiology, 1996, 33:4, 202-9

Hamilton, H. K. ed. 1982. Professional Guide To Diseases Intermed Communications Inc. Pub, Springfield, Massachusetts. 1323 pp.

Isselbacher, K.J. & R.D. Adams. 1980. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 9th ed. McGraw Hill Book Company Pub, New York. 2073 pp.

Jaffe, M.I. & A.R. Rabson. Lymphocyte Subsets in Measles: Depressed Helper/Inducer Reversed by Treatment with Ascorbic Acid. Journal Of Clinical Investigation, 72. 1983.

Kirschmann, J.D. 1990. Nutrition Almanac: Nutrition Search. McGrew-Hill: NY.

Levy M: Role of viral infections in the induction of adverse drug reactions. Drug Saf, 1997 Jan, 16:1, 1-8.

Munch M et al., The implications of Epstein-Barr virus in multiple sclerosis--a review. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl, 1997, 169:, 59-64.

Niederman, J.C. Chronicity of Epstein Barr Virus Infection. Ann. Int. Med. 1985 Jan; 102(1): 119-21.

Nockels, C.F. Protective Effectives of Supplemental Vitamin E Against Infection. Federation Proceedings, 38. 1979.

Noffsinger J: Physical activity considerations in children and adolescents with viral infections. Pediatr Ann, 1996 Oct, 25:10, 585-9.

Nutrition and Cataracts. Nutrition Reviews, 32. 1984.

Wyngaarden, J.B. & L.H. Smith. 1985. Cecil's Textbook of Medicine. Saunders Pub Co., Philadelphia. 2341 pp.