Text Size

Site Search powered by Ajax

Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's Disease


Parkinson's disease, one of the most common crippling diseases in the United States, is the gradual deterioration of specific nerve centers in the brain. This deterioration alters the chemical balance of acetylcholine and dopamine, substances essential for the proper transmission of nerve signals within this part of the nervous system. Lack of control of physical movements is the characteristic symptom of Parkinson's disease, and the ultimate result.

In the more severe cases, the person will become unable to walk smoothly due to an inability to swing the arms, write legibly, or move the mouth and tongue so as to speak clearly. There will also be increased difficulty in changing from one position to another, or in initiating new movements.

Parkinson's disease affects slightly more men than women at a ratio of three to two. Approximately one in every one hundred persons over age 60 will contract this condition. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease. Treatment is towards the physical symptoms as well as helping the person to cope with the problem mentally. This will include emotional support, practical changes in the house to facilitate movement, such as handrails, banisters, regular exercise, and drug therapy.


Primary Factors
The primary cause of Parkinson's disease is the gradual deterioration of certain nerve centers in the brain, especially those centers involved in the control of semiautomatic movements.

Predisposing Factors
Carbon monoxide poisoning, high levels of noxious body chemicals, brain infections such as encephalitis, and high doses of certain drugs such as those used to treat schizophrenia.

Signs & Symptoms

The primary symptom of Parkinson's disease is an involuntary tremor, an involuntary shaking of the hands, head, or both. This may be accompanied by a continuous rubbing together of the thumb and forefinger. The tremors are most severe when the affected part of the body is not in use. The tremor is reduced once the body part is moved. There is usually no pain or other sensation but only a decreased ability to move. Depression may result because, while the body is disabled, the mind remains intact.

Frequent fallingExcessive salivation
Abdominal crampsProgressive muscle rigidity
AgingMask-like facial expression
Completely closed eyelidsDecreased blinking frequency
Stooped postureLoss of involuntary gesturing
Senile dementiaFamilial predisposition
Increased mental dependencyFear
Decreased assertivenessIncreased passivity

Deterioration in memory or thought processes
Inability or difficulty performing simple tasks

Nutritional Supplements

Structure & Function:
        Nutrients for Brain Support &
        Essential Fatty Acids

General Supplements

Choline100 - 500 mg
Fish oils*
Folic acid400 - 2,000 mcg
Ginkgo biloba100 - 160 mg
Inositol100 - 500 mg
NADH2.5 - 5 mg
Tyrosine500 - 1,000 mg
Vitamin A*
Vitamin B-12100 - 1,000 mcg
VItamin C*
Vitamin E*
Wheat germ*

* Please refer to the respective topic for specific nutrient amounts.

Note: All amounts are in addition to those supplements having a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Due to individual needs, one must always be aware of a possible undetermined effect when taking nutritional supplements. If any disturbances from the use of a particular supplement should occur, stop its use immediately and seek the care of a qualified health care professional.

Dietary Considerations

With Parkinson's disease, muscle rigidity results in difficulty chewing and eliminating. Therefore the Mechanical Soft Diet is recommended.

Chronic administration of the drug Levodopa may result in vitamin B-6 deficiency, especially in individuals with high requirements for the vitamin due to diabetes, alcoholism or malnutrition. Long-term Levodopa treatment may also increase the individual's need for folacin and vitamin B-12. Supplementation with these vitamin B-Complex vitamins may be necessary.

Administration of levodopa with food is a standard recommendation to reduce problems with nausea and vomiting, however, the presence of protein inhibits drug absorption in two ways: it may delay stomach emptying, thereby providing the gastric mucosa with additional time to inactivate the drug; and high protein meals provide large neutral amino acids (LNAA) which compete with levodopa for blood transport. Thus, there is reduced drug efficacy and a decline in the clinical response. A special diet may be recommended. The most important thing may not be the total amount of protein but the amount consumed at any one meal!

Paradoxically, patients receiving levodopa have significantly lower plasma levels on a reduced protein diet! (Bianchine, 1976)

Excess amounts of manganese accumulate in the liver and central nervous system. Parkinson's disease-like symptoms may result from toxicity due to self-prescribed megadoses.

Homeopathic Remedy

1.* Mercurius Vivus 1M
2.* Stramonium - 15C long term
3. Argentum nitricum tinct. - 30C
4. Agaricus muscarius - 30C

Other remedies, sometimes mentioned include:

Antimonium tartaricum tinct.
Hyoscyamus niger
Kali bromatum
Manganum aceticum
Plumbum metallicum
Tarantula hispanola

Treatment Schedule

Doses cited are to be administered on a 3X daily schedule, unless otherwise indicated. Dose usually continued for 2 weeks. Liquid preparations usually use 8-10 drops per dose. Solid preps are usually 3 pellets per dose. Children use 1/2 dose.


X = 1 to 10 dilution - weak (triturition)
C = 1 to 100 dilution - weak (potency)
M = 1 to 1 million dilution (very strong)
X or C underlined means it is most useful potency

Asterisk (*) = Primary remedy. Means most necessary remedy. There may be more than one remedy - if so, use all of them.


Boericke, D.E., 1988. Homeopathic Materia Medica.

Coulter, C.R., 1986. Portraits of Homeopathic Medicines.

Kent, J.T., 1989. Repertory of the Homeopathic Materia Medica.

Koehler, G., 1989. Handbook of Homeopathy.

Shingale, J.N., 1992. Bedside Prescriber.

Smith, Trevor, 1989. Homeopathic Medicine.

Ullman, Dana, 1991. The One Minute (or so) Healer.

Herbal Approaches


Ginkgo biloba

Note: The misdirected use of an herb can produce severely adverse effects, especially in combination with prescription drugs. This Herbal information is for educational purposes and is not intended as a replacement for medical advice.


Ginkgo biloba is of notable benefit to brain circulation. Hawthorn may be required to boost the entire circulatory system.

Ginseng may provide a tonic boost.

Several beans (Fava, mucuna pruriens) are noted as having dopamine content.

However, Kava and dopamine are antagonistic, as is Vitex (Agnus Castus). [Jarry, 1994]

In spite of the incidence of depression, St. John's Wort does not seem to be an option. [Muller, 1997]

Constipation and depression are other frequent comorbidities, although some common herbal therapies may interfere with other therapeutic goals.

Care must also be taken to avoid herbs with cholinergic actions, which may affect drug therapy. Herbal ingredients with anticholinergic activity potentiate drug therapy and may increase the risk of side effects; while herbal ingredients, which are cholinergic, may be antagonistic.

Licorice Root
Maidenhair Fern
Red Raspberry Plant
Senega Snakeroot
Shepherd's Purse
Slippery Elm
Thorn Apple

Anticholinergics may be imperfectly absorbed if: ambrette, catnip, gentian, ginger, guar, hops, maidenhair fern, mullein, peppermint, red raspberry plant, senega snakeroot or slippery elm is being used on a daily basis.

Anise, arnica, chamomile, comfrey, cornsilk, dandelion, ginseng, hawthorn, hops, licorice root, psyllium, shepherd's purse, shizandra and sweetflag contain cholinergic substances.

Thorn apple is anticholinergic.

Hops antagonize the spasmogenic effects of acetylcholine.

The lobeline in lobelia increases acetylcholine response and may therefore potentiate the effects of cholinergic drugs.


Jarry, H et al., In vitro prolactin but not LH and FSH release is inhibited by compounds in extracts of Agnus castus: direct evidence for a dopaminergic principle by the dopamine receptor assay. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. 1994, 102:6, 448-454.

Muller JL & Clauson, KA: Top herbal products encountered in drug information requests (Part 2). Drug Benefit Trends, 1998, 10(6):21-23, 31. [St John's Wort and Saw Palmetto]

Pras, N et al., Mucuna pruriens: improvement of the biotechnological production of anti-parkinson drug l-dopa by plant cell selection. Pharm World Sci 15 (6) (1993): 263-268.

Rabey JM et al., Improvement of parkinsonian features correlate with high plasma levodopa values after broad bean (Vicia faba) consumption. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 1992 Aug, 55:8, 725-7.

Rabey JM et al., Broad bean (Vicia faba) consumption and Parkinson's disease. Adv Neurol, 1993, 60:, 681-4.

Raffauf, C., Jendroska, K., Poewe, W: Kava and dopamine antagonism. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. Vol. 58 (1995): 639-640.

Wichers, H., Visser, J., Huizing, H., Pras, N. Occurrence of 1-dopa and dopamine in plants and cell Cultures of mucuna pruriens and effects of 2,4-d and sodium chloride on these compounds. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 33 (3) (1993): 259-264.

Aromatherapy - Essential Oils

Central Nervous System:

Basil Essence,Bergamot Essence,
Geranium Essence,Hop Essence,
Lavender Essence,Lemon Essence,
Marjoram Essence,Nutmeg Essence,
Orange Essence,Rosemary Essence,
Thyme Essence,Valerian Essence.


Juniper Essence,Nutmeg Essence,
Sandalwood Essence,Spruce Essence.

Related Health Conditions




Adams, J. D. et al: Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease Brain Levels of Glutathione, Glutathione Disulfide, and Vitamin E. Molecular and Chemical Neuropathology, 1991;14:213-223.

Ball, M.J. The Morphological Basis of Dementia in Parkinson's Disease. Canadian Journal Of Neurological Sciences, 180. 1984.

Barbeau, A. Lecithin in Parkinson's Disease. Journal Of Neurological Transmission, 16. 1980.

Bianchine, JR et al., Clinical pharmacokinetics of levodopa in Parkinson's disease. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 1976, 1:313-328.

Birkmayer W. Riederer P. Parkinson's disease, New York: Springer Verlag Wien, 1983.

Birkmayer W. Birkmayer JGD. Iron, a new aid in the treatment of Parkinson patients. J Neural Transm 1986; 67:287-292.

Birkmayer JGD, Birkmayer W. Improvement of disability and akinesia of patients with Parkinson's disease by intravenous iron substitution. Ann Clin Sci 1987; 17:32-35.

Birkmayer, J.G. et al., Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) - a new therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease. Comparison of oral and parenteral application. Acta. Neurol. Scand. 1993, 146S: 32-35.

Bostantjopoulou S et al., Superoxide dismutase activity in early and advanced Parkinson's disease. Funct Neurol, 1997 Mar-Apr, 12:2, 63-8.

Brooker DJ et al., Single case evaluation of the effects of aromatherapy and massage on disturbed behaviour in severe dementia. Br J Clin Psychol, 1997 May, 36 ( Pt 2):, 287-96.

Cadet, J. L.: Movement Disorders: Therapeutic Role of Vitamin E, Toxicology Letter, 1993;9(1-2):337-347.

Eidelberg D et al., Metabolic correlates of pallidal neuronal activity in Parkinson's disease. Brain, 1997 Aug, 120 ( Pt 8):, 1315-24.

Fuh JL et al., Swallowing difficulty in Parkinson's disease. Clin Neurol Neurosurg, 1997 May, 99:2, 106-12.

Gaspar, P. & F. Gray. Dementia in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease. Acta Neuropath., 64. 1984.

Gimenez-Roldan, S et al., Predicting beneficial response to a protein-redistribution diet in fluctuating Parkinson's disease. Acta Neurol. Belg. 1991:

Goodnick, P. & S. Gershon. Chemotherapy of Cognitive Disorders in Geriatric Subjects. Journal Of Clinical Psychiatry, 45. 1984.

Hamilton, H.K. ed. 1982. Professional Guide To Diseases. Intermed Communications Inc. Pub, Springfield, Massachusetts. 1323 pp.

Hastings TG & Zigmond MJ: Loss of dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonism: possible role of reactive dopamine metabolites. J Neural Transm Suppl, 1997, 49:, 103-10.

Heinerman, John. 1982. Herbal Dynamics. Root of Life, Inc.: Publ.

Hobson JP & Meara RJ: Is the SF-36 health survey questionnaire suitable as a self-report measure of the health status of older adults with Parkinson's disease? Qual Life Res, 1997 Apr, 6:3, 213-6.

Karstaedt, PJ et al., Protein redistribution diet remains effective in patients with fluctuating Parkinsonism. Arch. Neurol. 1992 Feb:

Karstaedt, PJ & Pincus, , JH: Protein Redistribution Diet Remains Effective in Patients With Fluctuating Parkinsonism. Archives of Neurology, February 1992;49:149-151.

Karstaedt, PJ et al., Aspartame use in Parkinson's disease. Neurology, 1993, Mar:

Kosel, S. et al., NADH dehydrogenase and CYP2D6 genotypes in Parkinson's disease. 2nd workshop in neurogenetics, Munich, October, 1995.

Kunz, J.R.M. 1982. The American Medical Association Family Medical Guide. Random House Pub, New York. 832 pp.

Lanska DJ: The geographic distribution of Parkinson's disease mortality in the United States. J Neurol Sci, 1997 Sep 1, 150:1, 63-70.

Lieberman, S. & Bruning, N.: The Real Vitamin & Mineral Book. Avery, NY.

Lindgren CL: Chronic sorrow in persons with Parkinson's and their spouses. Sch Inq Nurs Pract, 1996 Winter, 10:4, 351-66; discussion 367-70.

Luke, B. 1984. Principles of Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Little, Brown, and Co., Boston. 816 pp.

Mena, I et al., Protein intake and treatment of Parkinson's disease with levodopa. NEJM, 1975, 292:181.

Molina JA et al., Decreased cerebrospinal fluid levels of neutral and basic amino acids in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Sci, 1997 Sep 10, 150:2, 123-7.

Nutt, JG et al., The "on-off" phenomenon in Parkinson's disease. Relation to levodopa absorption and transport. NEJM, 1984, 310, Feb 23:483-488.
Kirschmann, J.D. 1990. Nutrition Almanac: Nutrition Search. McGrew-Hill: New York.

Olanow CW: Attempts to obtain neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Neurology, 1997 Jul, 49:1 Suppl 1, S26-33.

Partinen M: Sleep disorder related to Parkinson's disease. J Neurol, 1997 Apr, 244:4 Suppl 1, S3-6.

Pennington, J. 1978. Nutritional Diet Therapy. Bull Publishing Co., Palo Alto, Ca. 106 pp.

Peppard, R. F. et al: Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Parkinson's Disease With and Without Dementia. Archives of Neurology, December 1992;49:1262-1268.

Pezzella A et al., Iron-mediated generation of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine quinone by reaction of fatty acid hydroperoxides with dopamine: a possible contributory mechanism for neuronal degeneration in Parkinson's disease. J Med Chem, 1997 Jul 4, 40:14, 2211-6.

Pras, N et al., Mucuna pruriens: improvement of the biotechnological production of anti-parkinson drug 1-dopa bv plant cell selection. Pharm World Sci 15 (6) (1993): 263-268.

Raffauf, C., jendroska, K., Poewe, W Kava and dopamine antagonism. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, andpsychiatry. Vol. 58 (1995): 639-640.

Riviere CN et al., Adaptive Fourier modeling for quantification of tremor. J Neurosci Methods, 1997 Jun 6, 74:1, 77-87.

Robbins, S.L. & R.S. Cotran. 1979. Pathologic Basis of Disease. 2nd ed. Saunders Pub Co., Philadelphia. 1598 pp.

Roos, RA et al., The influence of a standard meal on Sinemet CR absorption in patients with parkinson's disease. Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 1993 Sept:

Scigliano G et al., Increased plasma bilirubin in Parkinson patients on L-dopa: evidence against the free radical hypothesis? Ital J Neurol Sci, 1997 Apr, 18:2, 69-72.

Shults CW et al., Coenzyme Q10 levels correlate with the activities of complexes I and II/III in mitochondria from parkinsonian and nonparkinsonian subjects. Ann Neurol, 1997 Aug, 42:2, 261-4.

Tweedy, J.R. & C.A. Garcia. Lecithin Treatment of Cognitively Impaired Parkinson's Patients. European J Of Clin Investigation, 12. 1982.

Wichers, H., Visser, J., Huizing, H., Pras, N. Occurrence of 1-dopa and dopamine in plants and cell Cultures of mucuna pruriens and effects of 2,4-d and sodium chloride on these compounds. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 33 (3) (1993): 259-264.

Wyngaarden, J.B. & L.H. Smith. 1985. Cecil's Textbook of Medicine. Saunders Pub Co., Philadelphia. 2341 pp.

Yasui, M. et al: Calcium, Magnesium and Aluminum Concentrations in Parkinson's Disease. Neurotoxicology, 1992;13:593-600.

References (Drug-Nutrient A-L)

Abbott RA et al., Diet, body size and micronutrient status in Parkinson's disease. Eur J Clin Nutr, 1992 Dec, 46:12, 879-84.

Acuna-Castroviejo D et al., Melatonin is protective against MPTP-induced striatal and hippocampal lesions. Life Sci 60 (2): PL23-PL29 (1997)

Aminoff MJ: Treatment of Parkinson's disease. West J Med, 1994 Sep, 161:3, 303-308.

Anonymous: Top 200 pharmaceuticals list for 1997. American Druggist, February, 1998.

Anonymous: Pramipexole marketed for Parkinson's disease. Am. J. of Health-System Pharmacy. 1998.

Ashraf, W et al., Anorectal manometry in the assessment of anorectal function in Parkinson's disease: a comparison with chronic idiopathic constipation. Mov. Disord. 1994, 9:655-663.

Barbato L et al., Melperone in the treatment of iatrogenic psychosis in Parkinson's disease. Funct Neurol, 1996 Jul, 11:4, 201-7.

Barrett-Connor, E et al., Weight loss precedes dementia in community-dwelling older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 44:1147?1152, 1996.

Basu, T.K: Drug Nutrient Interactions. Croom Helm, London. 1988.

Basu, TK et al., Seasonal variation of vitamin A (retinol) status in older men and women. J-Am-Coll-Nutr. 1994 Dec; 13(6): 641-5.

Bell, IR: Vitamin B 12 and Folate in Acute Geropsychiatric In Patients, The Nutrition Report, January 1991;9(l):I,8.

Bennett, JP et al., Suppression of dyskinesias in advanced Parkinson's disease: moderate daily clozapine does provide long-term dyskinesisa reduction. Mov. Dis. 1994, 9(4):409-414.

Bennett JP Jr et al., Suppression of dyskinesias in advanced Parkinson's disease. II. Increasing daily clozapine doses suppress dyskinesias and improve parkinsonism symptoms. [see comments] Neurology, 1993 Aug, 43:8, 1551-5.

Birkmayer: The Clinical Benefit Of NADH as Stimulator of Endogenous L-Dopa Biosynthesis in Parkinsonian Patients. In: Streifler, M.B., A.D. Korczyn, E. Melamed, and M.B.H. Youdim (Eds): Advances in Neurology, Vol. 53: Parkinson's Disease:Anatomy, Pathology, and Therapy, edited by, Raven Press, New York 1990.

Birkmayer JGD, et al., Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) - a new therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease. Comparison of oral and parenteral application. Acta Neurol. Scand. 1993 146S:32-35.

Bonuccelli U et al., Clozapine in Parkinson's disease tremor. Effects of acute and chronic administration. Neurology, 1997 Dec, 49:6, 1587-90.

Braquet, P (Ed.): Ginkgolides - chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives. (2 vols). JR Prous, Barcelona. 1988.

Burkhardt CR & Weber HK: Parkinson's disease: a chronic, low-grade antioxidant deficiency? Med Hypotheses, 1994 Aug, 43:2, 111-4.

Calne DB et al., The effects of dopamine, L-dopa, L-tyrosine, and pyridoxine on sympathetic nerve endings in man. Br J Pharmacol, 1970 May, 39:1, 195P-196P.

Campbell N et al., Alteration of methyldopa absorption, metabolism and blood pressure control caused by ferrous sulfate and ferrous gluconate. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988;43:381-386.

Charles, PD & Davis, TL: Drug therapy for Parkinson's disease. South. Med. J. 1996, 89:851-856.

Choi Lundberg DL et al., Dopaminergic neurons protected from degeneration by GDNF gene therapy. Science, 1997 Feb, 275:5301, 838-41.

Ciccone, CD: Free-radical toxicity and antioxidant medications in Parkinson's disease. Phys. Ther. 1998, 78(3):313-319.

Crook, TH et al.,. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurol. 1991, 41: 644-649.

Crook, TH et al., 1992. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 28: 61-66.

Cunha, UG et al., Vitamin B12 deficiency and dementia. Int. Psychogeriatr. 1995 Spring; 7(1): 85-8.

de Rijk, MC et al., Prevalence of Parkinson's disease in the elderly: the Rotterdam study. Neurology, 1995, 45:2,143-2,146.

de Rijk MC et al., Dietary antioxidants and Parkinson disease. The Rotterdam Study. Arch Neurol, 1997 Jun, 54:6, 762-5.

Diamond, SG & Markham, CH: Mortality of Parkinson patients treated with Sinemet. Adv. Neurol. 1979, 24:489-497.

Diamond, SG et al., Multi-center study of Parkinson mortality with early versus latyer dopa tretament. Ann. Neurol. 1987, 22:8-12.

Ding YJ & He XX: Traditional Chinese herbs in treatment of neurological and neurosurgical disorders. Can J Neurol Sci, 1986 Aug, 13:3, 210-3.

Dooneief, G et al., An estimate of the incidence of depression in idopathic Parkinson's disease. Arch. Neurol. 1992, 49:305-307.

Dori, D et al., Chrono-neuroendocrinological aspects of physiological aging and senile dementia. Chronobiologia. 1994 Jan-Jun; 21(1-2): 121-6.

Doudet D et al., Effects of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition on the rates of uptake and reversibility of 6-fluoro-L-Dopa trapping in MPTP-induced parkinsonism in monkeys. Neuropharmacology 1997 Mar;36(3):363-71.

Ebadi, M et al., Oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy in Parkinson's disease. Prog. Neurobiol. 1996, 48:1-19.

Edwards LL et al., Gastrointestinal dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: frequency and pathophysiology. [see comments] Neurology, 1992 Apr, 42:4, 726-32.

Fahn, S., The endogenous toxin hypothesis of the etiology of Parkinsons Disease and a pilot trial of high-dosage antioxidants in an attempt to slow the progression of the illness, Annals of the NY Academy of Science, 1989, 570 : 186-96.

Fahn, S., An open trial of high-dosage antioxidants in early Parkinsons Disease, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Jan. 1991, 53 (1 Suppl) : 380S -382S.

Fahn S: A pilot trial of high-dose alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate in early Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol, 1992, 32 Suppl:, S128-32.

Fazzini, E: In response to readers questions. APDA Newsletter, Summer, 1997:3.

Federico A et al., Plasma levels of vitamin E in Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm Suppl, 1995, 45:, 267-70.

First Data Bank: Drug Data Bank. San Francisco, CA. 1998.

Foran, JA et al., Increased fish consumption may be risky. JAMA. 1989a. 262(1); 28.

Foran, J.A., M. Cox & D. Croxton. Sport fish consumption advisories and projected cancer risks in the Great Lakes basin. AJPH. 1989b. 79.

Foran, J.A. & D. VanderPloeg. Consumption advisories for sport fish in the Great Lakes basin. J Great Lakes Res. 1989c.

Foster NL et al., Frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome
17: a consensus conference. Conference Participants. Ann Neurol 1997 Jun;41(6):706-15.

Gash DM et al., Functional recovery in parkinsonian monkeys treated with GDNF. Nature, 1996 Mar, 380:6571, 252-5.

Gassen M & Youdim MB: The potential role of iron chelators in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and related neurological disorders. Pharmacol Toxicol 1997 Apr;80(4):159-66.

Gerlach, M et al., Is selegiline neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease? J Neural. Transm. Suppl. 1994; 41:177-88.

Gerlach, M et al., Pharmacology of selegiline. Neurology, 1996, 47(Suppl 3):S137-S145.

Giuliani, A. & Cestaro, B: Exercise, Free Radical Generation and Vitamins. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 1997;6(Suppl. 1):S55-S67.

Gorell JM et al., Occupational exposures to metals as risk factors for Parkinson's disease.
Neurology, 1997 Mar, 48:3, 650-8.

Hagan J et al., Parkinson's disease: prospects for improved drug therapy. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1997 May;18(5):156-63.

Hamilton, K et al: Clinical Pearls 1997 in Nutrition and Preventive Medicine. IT Services, Sacramento, CA. 1997.

Hellenbrand W et al., Diet and Parkinson's disease. II: A possible role for the past intake of specific nutrients. Results from a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire in a case-control study. [see comments] Neurology, 1996 Sep, 47:3, 644-50.

Hirsch, EC: Does oxidative stress participate in nerve cell death in Parkinson's disease? Eur. Neurol. 1993, 33(Suppl):S2-S9.

Horrobin, D. F. (Ed.) Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids: Pathophysiology And Roles In Clinical Medicine. Liss, New York, 1990.

Hutchinson. Fish liver oil vs. fish oil. Can Med Assoc J. 1988. 139;1037.

Hyams DE: Central nervous system: antiparkinsonism and antiepileptic drugs. In: Brocklehurst JC, ed. Geriatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics. London: Blackwell Sci Publ; 1984:174.

Itil, T & Martorano, D: Natural substances in psychiatry (Ginkgo biloba in dementia). Psychopharmacol. Bull. 1995, 31(1): 147 - 158.

Jarry, H et al., In vitro prolactin but not LH and FSH release is inhibited by compounds in extracts of Agnus castus: direct evidence for a dopaminergic principle by the dopamine receptor assay. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. 1994, 102:6, 448-454.

Johnson MA et al: Iron nutriture in elderly individuals. FASEB J. 1994, 8:609-621.

Jost WH: Gastrointestinal motility problems in patients with Parkinson's disease. Effects of antiparkinsonian treatment and guidelines for management. Drugs Aging 1997 Apr;10(4):249-58.

Koller, WC et al., Adjuvant therapy of parkinsonian tremor. Arch. Neurol. 1997, 44:921.

Kondo T: L-threo-DOPS in advanced parkinsonism. Adv Neurol, 1993, 60:, 660-5.

Krezel Wet al., Impaired locomotion and dopamine signaling in retinoid receptor mutant mice. Science, 1998 Feb, 279:5352, 863-7.

Kuhn W & M?ller T: [Therapy of Parkinson disease. 1: Standard therapy of motor and non-motor symptoms.] Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr, 1997 Aug, 65:8, 361-74.

Kuno S: [Treatment of Parkinson's disease with multiple drugs.] Nippon Rinsho, 1997 Jan, 55:1, 59-64.

Kurth MC: Using liquid levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. A practical guide. Drugs Aging 1997 May;10(5):332-40.

Lerner et al: Isolation of melatonin, the pineal factor that lightens melanocytes. J.Am. Chem. Soc.1958(80):2587.

Levine et al., Follow-up and relapse analysis of an inositol study of depression. Isr-J-Psychiatry-Relat-Sci. 1995; 32(1): 14-21.

Levitt, A.J., et al, Folate, vitamin B12 and cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's Disease, ACTA Pshychiatr Scand, 1992;86:301-305.

LeWitt P et al., The need for levodopa as an end point of Parkinson's disease progression in a clinical trial of selegiline and alpha-tocopherol. Parkinson Study Group. Mov Disord, 1997 Mar, 12:2, 183-9.

Lin, LFH: Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF): a comprehensive review. Neural Notes Magazine, 1996, II(3):3.)

Loeffler DA et al., Ceruloplasmin is increased in cerebrospinal fluid in Alzheimer's disease but not Parkinson's disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord, 1994 Fal, 8:3, 190-7.

Logroscino G et al., Altered systemic iron metabolism in Parkinson's disease. Neurology, 1997 Sep, 49:3, 714-7.

References (Drug-Nutrient M-Z)

Maestroni. GJM et al., Melatonin, stress and the immune system. In: Melatonin: Biosynthesis, Physiological Effects and Clinical Applications. Y Hing-Su & RJ Reiter (Eds). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1993.

Mahadik, SP et al., Plasma membrane phospholipid and cholesterol distribution of skin fibroblasts from drug-naive patients at the onset of psychosis. Schizophr-Res. 1994 Oct; 13(3): 239-47.

Manyam, BV: Practical guidelines for management of Parkinson's disease. J. Am. Board Fam. Pract. 1997, 10(6):412-424.

Mars H: Levodopa, carbidopa, and pyridoxine in Parkinson disease. Metabolic interactions. Arch Neurol, 1974 Jun, 30:6, 444-7.

Mathers, SE et al., Anal sphincter dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Arch. Neurol. 1989, 46:1,061-1,064.

McKeon, P., et al, Serum and red cell folate an affective morbidity in lithium prophylaxis. ACTA Psychiatr. Scand., 1991;83: 199-201.

Meco G et al., Risperidone in levodopa-induced psychosis in advanced Parkinson's disease: an open-label, long-term study. Mov Disord, 1997 Jul, 12:4, 610-2.

Meco G et al., Risperidone in levodopa induced dyskinesiae. [letter] J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 1998, 64(1):135.

Mendis T et al., Symptomatic relief from treatment-induced psychosis in Parkinson's disease: an open-label pilot study with remoxipride. Mov Disord, 1994 Mar, 9:2, 197-200.

The Merck Manual. Merck & Co., Inc. NJ. Sixteenth Edition. 1992.

Montgomery EB Jr: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of levodopa. Neurology, 1992 Jan, 42:1 Suppl 1, 17-22; discussion 57-60.

Montgomery, EB et al., Patient education and health promotion can be effective in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial. Am. J. Med. 1994,97:429-435.

Morens DM et al., Case-control study of idiopathic Parkinson's disease and dietary vitamin E intake. Neurology, 1996 May, 46:5, 1270-4.

Morinobu-T et al., Plasma alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and retinol levels in the institutionalized elderly individuals and in young adults. Int-J-Vitam-Nutr-Res. 1994; 64(2): 104-8.

Muller, Pharmacopsychiatry, 1997.

Myhre E et al., Clinical pharmacokinetics of methyldopa. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1982;7:221-233.

Myllyla VV et al., Selegiline as the primary treatment of Parkinson's disease-a long-term double-blind study. Acta Neurol Scand 1997 Apr;95(4):211-8.

Nausieda, PA: Clinical observations on the use of Ropinirole in Parkinson's disease. Parkinson Report, 1998, 19(1) Winter:6-7.

Normann C et al., Psychosis during chronic levodopa therapy triggered by the new antidepressive drug mirtazapine. Pharmacopsychiatry, 1997 Nov, 30:6, 263-5.

Nutt, JG: Levodopa-induced dyskinesia: review, observations and speculations. Neurology, 1990, 40:340-345.

Obeso, JA & Martinez-Lage, JM: Anticholinergics and amantadine. In Handbook of Parkinson's disease (Ed) W.C Koller. New York. 1992.

O'Donnell, DC & Church, CA: Therapeutics of Parkinson's disease. Pharmacy Times, 1997, February:57-65.

Offen, D et al., Prevention of dopamine-induced cell death by thiol antioxidants: possible implications for treatment of Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol, 1996 Sep, 141:1, 32-9.

Olanow CW: Deprenyl in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: clinical effects and speculations on mechanism of action. J Neural Transm Suppl, 1996, 48:, 75-84.

Olanow, CW: An introduction to the free radical hypopthesis in Parkinson's disease. Ann. Neurol. 1992, 32(Suppl):S2-S9.

Ortega, RM et al., Nutritional assessment of folate and cyanocobalamin status in a Spanish elderly group, Intntl J of Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 1993;63:17-2 1.

Oxenkrug, GF et al., The effect of 6-months l-deprenyl administration on pineal MAO-A and MAO-B activity and on the content of melatonin and related indoles in aged Fisher 344N rats. J Neural Transm. 1994 Suppl 41:249-252.

Oyama Yet al., Ginkgo biloba extract protects brain neurons against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. Brain Res, 1996 Mar, 712:2, 349-52.

Oxenkrug, GF et al., The effect of 6-months l-deprenyl administration on pineal MAO-A and MAO-B activity and on the content of melatonin and related indoles in aged Fisher 344N rats. J Neural Transm. 1994 Suppl 41:249-252.

Pappert EJ et al., Levodopa stability in solution: time course, environmental effects, and practical recommendations for clinical use. Mov Disord, 1996 Jan, 11:1, 24-6.

Pappert EJ et al., Alpha-tocopherol in the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson's disease patients: dose-response study and correlations with plasma levels. Neurology, 1996 Oct, 47:4, 1037-42.

Parkinson's Study Group: Effects of tocopherol and deprenyl on the progression of disability in early Parkinson's disease. NEJM. 1993, 328:176-183.

Parkinson Study Group: Impact of deprenyl and tocopherol treatment on Parkinson's disease in DATATOP subjects not requiring levodopa. [see comments]. Ann Neurol, 1996 Jan, 39:1, 29-36.

Parkinson Study Group: Impact of deprenyl and tocopherol treatment on Parkinson's disease in DATATOP patients requiring levodopa. [see comments] Ann Neurol, 1996 Jan, 39:1, 37-45.

Parkinson Study Group: Safety and efficacy of pramipexole in early Parkinson disease.
A randomized dose-ranging study. JAMA 1997 Jul 9;278(2):125-30

Partinen M: Sleep disorder related to Parkinson's disease. J Neurol 1997 Apr;244(4 Suppl 1):S3-6.

PDR (Physicians Desk Reference) Guide to Drug Interactions, Side Effects, Indications. 49th Edition. Medical Economics Co. Montvale, NJ. 1995.

Pezzoli G et al., Pergolide compared with bromocriptine in Parkinson's disease: a multicenter, crossover, controlled study. Mov Disord, 1994 Jul, 9:4, 431-6.

Poeggeler, B et al., Melatonin, hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidative damage and ageing: a hypothesis. J of Pineal Res. 1993, 14:151-168.

Rausch WD et al., Tyrosine hydroxylase activity in caudate nucleus from Parkinson's disease. Effects of iron and phosphorylating agents. J Neurochem 1988; 50:202-208.

Reiter, RJ: Pineal function during aging: attenuation of the melatonin rhythm and its neurobiological consequences. Acta-Neurobiol-Exp-Warsz. 1994b; 54 Suppl: 31-9.

Ritter JL & Alexander B: Retrospective study of selegiline-antidepressant drug interactions and a review of the literature. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1997 Mar;9(1):7-13.

Roe DA. Ed. Drugs and Nutrition in the Geriatric Patient. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1984a.

Roe DA: Drug-induced mineral depletion in the elderly. In: Roe DA. Ed. Drugs and Nutrition in the Geriatric Patient. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1984b.

Roe DA & Campbell, TC. Eds. Drugs and Nutrients: The Interactive Effects. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1984c.

Roe, DA: Nutrient and drug interactions. In: Present Knowledge in Nutrition, 5th edition. Washington, D.C.: The Nutrition Foundation 1984d.

Roe, DA: Drug-nutrient interactions in the elderly. Geriatrics. 1986 Mar;41(3):57-9, 63-4, 74.

Roe DA: Diet and Drug Interactions. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold; 1988b.

Roe DA: Drug and Diet Interactions. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold; 1989.

Roe, DA: Handbook on Drug and Nutrient Interactions. American Dietetic Association, 1994a.

Roe, DA: Medications and nutrition in the elderly. Prim Care 1994b Mar;21(1):135-47.

Ruggieri S et al., Low dose of clozapine in the treatment of dopaminergic psychosis in Parkinson's disease. Clin Neuropharmacol, 1997 Jun, 20:3, 204-9

Saint-Cyr, JA et al., Neuropsychological and psychiatric side effects in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Neurology, 1993, 43(Suppl6):S47-S52.

Sastre J et al., A Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) prevents mitochondrial aging by protecting against oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med, 1998 Jan, 24:2, 298-304.

Scheider WL et al., Dietary antioxidants and other dietary factors in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord, 1997 Mar, 12:2, 190-6.

Schelosky, (Letter) JNNP. 1995.

Schneider LS et al., A double-blind crossover pilot study of l-deprenyl (selegiline) combined with cholinesterase inhibitor in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry, 1993 Feb, 150:2, 321-3.

Schulz-JB et al., Coenzyme Q10 and nicotinamide and a free radical spin trap protect against MPTP neurotoxicity. Exp-Neurol. 1995 Apr; 132(2): 279-83.

Shaw, KM et al., Melatonin and Parkinsonism. Lancet, 1973, 1:271.

Shneerson JN & Gazzard BG: Reversible malabsorption caused by methyldopa. BMJ 1977;2:1456-1457.

Sim, M et al., Are Aluminium Potroom Workers at Increased Risk of Neurological Disorders? Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997;54:229-235.

Simonian, NA & Coyle, JT: Oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1996, 36:83-106.

Snider SR: Octacosanol in parkinsonism. [letter] Ann Neurol, 1984 Dec, 16:6, 723).

Soulairac, A et al., Schizophrenie et prostaglandines: Effects therapeutiques de precurseurs de leur synthese sous la forme de l'huile d'onagre (oenothere). Ann Med-psych. 14(8), 1983.

Spieker S et al., Zotepine in levodopa-induced Psychosis. Mov Disord, 1995 Nov, 10:6, 795-7.

Strijks E et al., Q10 therapy in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Mol Aspects Med, 1997, 18 Suppl:, S237-40.

Toffano, G.: The therapeutic value of phosphatidylserine effect in the aging brain. In, Lecithin: Technological, Biological, and Therapeutic Aspects (ed. I. Hanin & G.B. Ansell), pp. 137-146. New York: Plenum Press, 1987.

Tohgi H et al., Reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and alpha-tocopherol in the cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinsonian patients: comparison between before and after L-dopa treatment. Neurosci Lett, 1995 Jan, 184:1, 21-4.

van Laar T et al., A new sublingual formulation of apomorphine in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord, 1996 Nov, 11:6, 633-8.

Vogel G: Gene discovery offers tentative clues to Parkinson's. Science 1997 Jun 27;276(5321):1973.

Wesemann W et al., Effect of lazaroid U-74389G on iron-induced reduction of striatal dopamine metabolism. J Neural Transm Suppl, 1995, 46:, 175-82.

Wetterling T & Mussigbrodt H: [Body weight increase: a side effect of zotepin (Nipolept)?] Nervenarzt, 1996, 67(3):256-61,

Yasui, M et al., Role of zinc in the central nervous system. In: Mineral And Medical Neurotoxicology. CRC Press, 1997a, Chapter 14:139-145.

Yasui, M et al., Magnesium-related neurological disorders. In: Mineral and Metal Neurotoxicology, 1997b CRC Press, Chapter 22:219-226.

Youdim, MB et al., The possible role of iron in the etiopathology of Parkinson's disease. Mov. Disord. 1993, 8:1-12.

Youdim, MB et al., Selective MAO-A and B inhibitors, radical scavengers and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in Parkinson's disease. Life Sci. 1994, 55:2,077-2,082.

Young BK et al., Neuropsychiatric adverse effects of antiparkinsonian drugs. Characteristics, evaluation and treatment. Drugs Aging, 1997 May, 10:5, 367-83.

Zhongming, Q et al., Brain iron and neurological disorders. Chinese Medical Journal, 1997;110(6):455-458.


Follow Applied Health on FaceBook Follow Applied Health on Twitter Follow Applied Health on Pinterest Follow Applied Health on YouTube

cruelty free - tested only on humans
We test only on humans