Pregnancy is the condition in a female in which an embryo or fetus is developing in the uterus. Pregnancy begins at conception and ends at childbirth. In the normal case, pregnancy lasts for nine months during which the mother should gain approximately 25 pounds including the weight of the baby.
When pregnancy is first suspected, urine, blood, and home pregnancy testing can be done to confirm the condition. Amniocentesis can identify fetuses affected by serious genetic diseases and other conditions. In this procedure, the fluid which surrounds the fetus is withdrawn. Tests can then reveal chromosomal abnormalities, sex-linked diseases, congenital metabolic disorders and spinal cord defects. These may include Tay-sachs disease, Down's syndrome, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, Huntington's chorea, and cystic fibrosis.
When a woman is pregnant, she should get proper rest, exercise, and diet. Support hosiery may be worn to prevent or give relief from varicose veins. The woman should abstain from all medications (except those prescribed by a physician), alcohol or smoking as they may lead to miscarriage or congenital disorders. It is often recommended the woman attend a prenatal care program.
In most cases impregnation occurs during sexual intercourse when the ovum is fertilized by the male's sperm. This is known as conception. The fertilized egg, now called the zygote, then attaches to the uterine wall. Other techniques of fertilization are also possible, including in vitro fertilization, popularly known as test-tube fertilization producing test-tube babies.
According to the American Medical Association, pregnancy can occur even if the male partner withdraws before ejaculation, the woman douches herself properly after intercourse, the woman was experiencing menstruation or if the woman was breast-feeding.
Signs & Symptoms
Darkening of nipples
Morning sickness; this is experienced by 80% of pregnant women, occurring at any time of day or night; morning sickness may be triggered by innocuous odors or foods, or by altered hormonal levels, particularly human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Changed sleep patterns, including insomnia
Intuition (some women are sensitive to biofeedback but cannot define any particular reason for knowing that they are pregnant)
Loss of taste for sour and acidic foods
Increased urge to urinate
Feeling of pressure on the bladder
Slightly flushed color of vaginal lining
Development of brown spots or splotches on skin
Increased blood volume giving rise to hypertension
Breathing more from the chest, less from the abdomen
Increased acidity in the saliva
Softening of cervical tissue
Enlargement of the uterus
Presence of human chorionic gonadotropin in the blood or urine
Anemia due to Folic acid or iron deficiency
Structure & Function: Women's Health
Adult Chlorella* Choline* EPO* Fish oils* Folic acid 800 - 2,000 mcg Iron 20 - 40 mg Methionine* Phosphatidylserine* Vitamin B-Complex hi-potency Vitamin C 500 - 1,000 mg Vitamin E 200 - 400 IU Vitamin K* Zinc 10 - 20 mg
* Please refer to the respective topic for specific nutrient amounts.
Methionine may be used in two forms: Methionine and L-methionine.
Chlorella and phosphatidylserine have each been recommended to prevent premature rupture of the membrane.
Vitamins C and K only seem to exert a beneficial effect when combined.
Note: All amounts are in addition to those supplements having a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Due to individual needs, one must always be aware of a possible undetermined effect when taking nutritional supplements. If any disturbances from the use of a particular supplement should occur, stop its use immediately and seek the care of a qualified health care professional.
Dietary Goals Diet, a general healthful diet, is recommended during pregnancy. Care should be taken not to gain more than four pounds during the first three months. There is a minimal increase in caloric requirements during this period, yet women tend to eat more during this time in the belief they need to eat for two. During the second and third trimester of pregnancy, the mother-to-be should eat about 300 kilocalories per day above her prepregnancy basal requirements. A weight gain of one pound a week should be the goal during the remainder of pregnancy for a total gain of 20 to 30 pounds.
There is an increased need for ingestion of vitamins and minerals such as:
Calcium Riboflavin Iron Niacin Iodine (from iodized salt) Beta-carotene Folic acid Vitamin D Thiamine
These requirements are met by the prenatal multivitamins which most physicians prescribe.
Pregnant women are advised not to take vitamin A in the retinol form as these levels may cause abnormal development in the fetus. Natural food sources of beta carotene-rich foods are generally encouraged. Megadoses of vitamin C (greater than five grams per day) are also hazardous to the fetus. Its metabolism grows dependent on extreme levels of vitamin C, resulting in "rebound scurvy" when normal levels of the vitamin are provided after birth.
Women are advised to stop smoking and avoid drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Smoking mothers give birth to smaller babies and are more likely to have a miscarriage or premature delivery.
Mothers who drink ethanol are more likely to have miscarriages, as well as give birth to children with microcephaly, cleft palate, or fetal alcohol syndrome. As no one knows how much alcohol, if any can be safely consumed during pregnancy; most physicians recommend total abstinence to be on the safe side.
Anemia can result from insufficient intake of iron. The mother-to-be has an increased requirement for iron, as much as five to six micrograms per day over the normal one microgram per day prepregnancy requirement.
Iron-rich foods can be consumed to increase the intake of dietary iron. The following foods are good sources of iron:
Beef liver Eggs Beef Dried fruit Whole wheat breads
The increased iron requirement cannot be supplied totally through the diet, however, as the average American diet provides only one to two micrograms per day. A physician will therefore prescribe daily iron supplementation at the onset of prenatal care. Since iron intake may cause nausea, the doctor may wait until the second trimester before prescribing iron for a women experiencing extreme morning sickness.
The total red blood cell volume of a pregnant women will increase 20-30% during the last two trimesters. Folacin is necessary for this multiplication to occur. The folacin acid requirement of a pregnant woman increases 100 units to 800 micrograms per day. It is possible to attain this level in a standard diet which provides about 700 micrograms per day, however 0.5 to 1 milligram supplements are usually prescribed.
Muscle cramps may be symptomatic of a calcium deficiency or a phosphorus to calcium ratio imbalance. The Recommended Daily Allowance for calcium for pregnant women is 1,200 milligrams per day, up 400 milligrams from the RDA for non-pregnant women. This can be achieved by drinking a quart or more of milk per day, or through taking mineral supplements.
Morning sickness can be alleviated by eating a high carbohydrate food, such as toast or saltine crackers. It may be helpful to place the food on the nightstand beside the bed before retiring to sleep to quell the nausea immediately upon awakening.
Some women find relief by avoiding greasy or spicy foods, by temporarily following a Bland Diet or by eating small, frequent meals.
Heartburns can be alleviated by eating small, frequent meals, because food soaks up the digestive juices. Antacids should be avoided as they interfere with the absorption of iron.
Advanced, by symptom:
1. Daily supplement for easy delivery, last 3 weeks of labor - Caulophyllum.
2. For rapid delivery, reduced trauma - Arnica montana tinct..
3. "False" irregular, short and weak labor pains - Caulophyllum thalictroides tinct..
4. "False" labor pains with weakness and trembling - Gelsemium sempervirens.
5. Can't bear the pain, irritable - Chamomilla tinct..
6. Can't go on alone - Pulsatilla nigricans.
7. Feels exhausted, needs fanning - Carbo vegetabilis.
8. Unbearable pain, weepiness - Coffea cruda.
9. Urgency to void - Nux vomica.
1. Poor milk flow - Pulsatilla nigricans.
2. Engorgement (blocked ducts) - Silicea tinct..
3. Mastitis - Belladonna tinct..
4. Sore nipples - Chamomilla tinct..
1. Heavy and full, not thirsty - Pulsatilla nigricans.
2. Persistent nausea, not relieved by vomiting - Ipecacuanha.
3. Feels empty, better for eating - Sepia.
4. Excessive retching and straining - Nux vomica.
5. Feels empty, can't keep cold drinks down, nausea on putting hands in warm water - Phosphorus ruber.
Doses cited are to be administered on a 3X daily schedule, unless otherwise indicated. Dose usually continued for 2 weeks. Liquid preparations usually use 8-10 drops per dose. Solid preps are usually 3 pellets per dose. Children use 1/2 dose.
X = 1 to 10 dilution - weak (triturition)
C = 1 to 100 dilution - weak (potency)
M = 1 to 1 million dilution (very strong)
X or C underlined means it is most useful potency
Asterisk (*) = Primary remedy. Means most necessary remedy. There may be more than one remedy - if so, use all of them.
Boericke, D.E., 1988. Homeopathic Materia Medica.
Coulter, C.R., 1986. Portraits of Homeopathic Medicines.
Kent, J.T., 1989. Repertory of the Homeopathic Materia Medica.
Koehler, G., 1989. Handbook of Homeopathy.
Shingale, J.N., 1992. Bedside Prescriber.
Smith, Trevor, 1989. Homeopathic Medicine.
Ullman, Dana, 1991. The One Minute (or so) Healer.
Calc. Phos. useful remedy: aids normal development, weakness, weariness of the mother (during and after pregnancy); Ferr. Phos. morning sickness, vomiting undigested food; Kali Phos. nervous strain; Nat. Mur. morning sickness, frothy, watery phlegm; Nat. Phos. morning sickness, sour mucus, acidosis; Nat. Sulf. vomiting, bilious matter, bitter taste;
Milk Thistle (Silymarin)
Red raspberry plant
Morning Sickness (Hoffmann)
False Unicorn Root
Threatened miscarriage (Hoffmann)
False Unicorn Root
Note: The misdirected use of an herb can produce severely adverse effects, especially in combination with prescription drugs. This Herbal information is for educational purposes and is not intended as a replacement for medical advice.
Ginger is probably the best-known carminative (removing gas and relaxing the intestinal tract).
Milk Thistle supports the liver, which may be having difficulty detoxifying. However, a number of studies implicate psychological problems, like the relationships and the desirability of being pregnant.
Red raspberry plant provides a "sipping" tea. Its consumption can be increased as delivery approaches, in order to help the uterus contract more effectively.
From Native America, Blue cohosh and squaw vine are also useful in preparing for an easier birth.
Fulder, S & Tenne, M: Ginger as an anti-nausea remedy in pregnancy: the issue of safety. HerbalGram, 1996, 38:47-50.
Hoffmann, D: The New Holistic Herbal. Element, 1983. Third edition 1990.
Aromatherapy - Essential Oils
Jasmine Essence, Neroli Essence, Rose Essence, Sandalwood Essence.
Cardamom Essence, Coriander Essence, Ginger Essence, Peppermint Essence.
Related Health ConditionsAbstracts
Abraham, G.E. & M.M. Lubran. Serum and Red Cell Magnesium Levels in Patients with Premenstrual Tension. Am J Of Clin Nutri, 34. 1981.
Ahluwalia IB et al., Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and birth outcome: increased effects on pregnant women aged 30 years or older. Am J Epidemiol, 1997 Jul 1, 146:1, 42-7.
Allen LH: Pregnancy and iron deficiency: unresolved issues. Nutr Rev, 1997 Apr, 55:4, 91-101.
Allgood, V. E., Powell-Oliver, F. E., Cidlowski, J. A., The influence of vitamin B6 on the structure and function of the glucocorticoid receptor. Vitamin B6 Vol. 585 , Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Dakshinamurti, K. (ed.), 1990, pp. 452-465.
Alpers, D.H., R.E. Clouse & W.F. Stenson. 1983. Manual of Nutritional Therapeutics. Little, Brown, and Company, Boston. 457 pp.
Anderson AS et al., The influence of dietary advice on nutrient intake during pregnancy. Br J Nutr, 1995 Feb, 73:2, 163-77.
Anonymous: Knowledge and use of folic acid by women of childbearing age--United States, 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 1997 Aug 8, 46:31, 721-3.
Badart-Smook A et al., Fetal growth is associated positively with maternal intake of riboflavin and negatively with maternal intake of linoleic acid. J Am Diet Assoc, 1997 Aug, 97:8, 867-70.
Baum, G. Et al: Meclozine and pyridoxine in pregnancy. Practitioner, 1963, 190: 251.
Belizan, J.M. et al: Calcium supplementation to prevent hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. NEJM. 1991, 325: 1,399-1,405.
Blank DM: Sensory attributes of craved and aversive foods in healthy women. Collegian, 1996 Jan, 3:1, 21-6.
Bower, D. & Stanley, F.J.: Dietary folate as a risk factor for neural-tube defects: evidence from a case-control study in Western Australia. Med. J. Aus. 1989, 150: 613-619. [Comment:Med. J. Aus. 1989, 150:609.]
Brown JE et al., A food frequency questionnaire can detect pregnancy-related changes in diet. J Am Diet Assoc, 1996 Mar, 96:3, 262-6.
Brown JE & Kahn ES: Maternal nutrition and the outcome of pregnancy. A renaissance in research. Clin Perinatol, 1997 Jun, 24:2, 433-49.
Brussaard JH et al., Dietary intake of food contaminants in The Netherlands (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System). Food Addit Contam, 1996 Jul, 13:5, 561-73.
Buamah, P.K. et al: Maternal zinc status: a determinant of central nervous system malformation. Br. J. Ob. Gyn. 1984, 91: 788-790.
Burkitt, D.P. 1975. Large Bowel Carcinogenesis. An Epidemiologic Jigsaw Puzzle. Journal Of The National Cancer Institute, 54.
Butterworth CE Jr & Bendich A: Folic acid and the prevention of birth defects. Annu Rev Nutr, 1996, 16:, 73-97.
Chasroff, I.J. & J.W. Ellis. 1983. Family Medical Guide. William Morrow and Company Inc., pub. 594 pp.
Chawla PK & Puri R: Impact of nutritional supplements on hematological profile of pregnant women. Indian Pediatr, 1995 Aug, 32:8, 876-80.
Cherry, F.F. et al: Adolescent pregnancy: associations among body weight, zinc nutriture and pregnancy outcome. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1989, 50: 945-954.
Conradt, A. et al: On the role of magnesium in fetal hypotrophy, pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia. Magnesium Bull. 1984, 2: 68-76.
Coste, J. et al: Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case-Controlled Study in France, With Special Focus on Infectious Factors. American Journal of Epidemiology, May 1, 1991;133(9):839-849.
Dawson, E.B. & McGanity, W.J. : Protection of maternal iron stores in pregnancy. J. Reprod. Med. 1987, 32(6 Supp.): 478-487.
Disch G et al., Therapeutic availability of iron administered orally as the ferrous gluconate together with magnesium-L-aspartate hydrochloride. Arzneimittelforschung, 1996 Mar, 46:3, 302-6.
Dostalova, L. : Corrleation of the vitamin status between mother and newborn during delivery. Dev. Pharmacol. Ther. 1982, 4 Supp: 45-57.
Doyle, W. et al: The association between maternal diet and birth dimensions. J. Nutr. Med. 1990,1: 9-17.
Dubois S et al., Ability of the Higgins Nutrition Intervention Program to improve adolescent pregnancy outcome. J Am Diet Assoc, 1997 Aug, 97:8, 871-8.
Fagen C et al., Nutrition management in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a review by ADA's Diabetes Care and Education Dietetic Practice Group. J Am Diet Assoc, 1995 Apr, 95:4, 460-7.
Fitzgerald, C.M. : Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Br. J. Med. Psycho. 1984, 57: 159-165.
Foukas, M.D.: An antilactogenic effect of pyridoxine. J. Ob. Gyn. Br. Comm. 1973:718-720.
Franz, K.B. : Magnesium levels during pregnancy. Magnesium, 1987, 6: 18-27.
Fuentes-Afflick E et al., Ethnic disparity in the performance of prenatal nutrition risk assessment among Medicaid-eligible women. Public Health Rep, 1995 Nov-Dec, 110:6, 764-73.
Gandy, G. & Jaconson, W. : Influence of folic acid on birthweight and growth of the erythroblastotic infant. 1. Birthweight. Arch. Dis. Child. 1977, 52(1): 1-6.
Godfrey K et al., Maternal nutrition in early and late pregnancy in relation to placental and fetal growth. BMJ, 1996 Feb 17, 312:7028, 410-4.
Godfrey KM et al., Maternal birthweight and diet in pregnancy in relation to the infant's thinness at birth. Br J Obstet Gynaecol, 1997 Jun, 104:6, 663-7.
Gold, S. & Sherry, L. : Hyperactivity, learning disabilities and alcohol. J. Learn. Disab. 1984, 17(1): 3-6.
Golub MS & Domingo JL: What we know and what we need to know about developmental aluminum toxicity. J Toxicol Environ Health, 1996 Aug 30, 48:6, 585-97.
Goyal, U. Et al: Effects of folic acid supplementation on birth weight of infants. J. Ob. Gyn. India, 1980, 30: 104.
Grontved, A. & Hentzer, E.: Vertigo-reducing effect of ginger root. O.R.L. 1982, 48: 282-286.
Grontved, A. et al: Ginger root against sea sickness. A controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol. 1988, 105: 45-49.
Hambridge, K.M. et al: Zinc nutritional status during pregnancy: a longitudinal study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1983, 37: 429-442.
Hammar, M. et al: Calcium and magnesium status in pregnant women: a comparison between treatment with calcium and vitamin C in pregnant women with leg cramps. Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 1987, 57(2): 179-183.
Heller, S. et al: Vitamin B6 status in pregnancy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1973, 26(12): 1,339-1,348.
Heller, S. et al: Riboflavin status in pregnancy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1974, 27: 1,225-1,230.
Hemminki, E. & Starfield, B. : Routine administration of iron and vitamins during pregnancy: review of controlled clinical trials. Br. J. Ob. Gyn. 1978, 85(6): 404-410.
Herberg, S. Et al: Iron and folacin status of pregnant women: relationships with dietary intakes. Nutr. Rep. Int. 1987, 35(5): 915-930.
Holt, V. L. et al: Tubal Sterilization and Subsequent Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case- Controlled Study. JAMA, July 10, 1991;266(2):242-246.
Hornstra G et al., Essential fatty acids in pregnancy and early human development. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 1995 Jul, 61:1, 57-62.
Hustead, V.A. et al: Relationship of vitamin A (retinol) status to lung disease in the preterm infant. J. Pediatrics, 1984, 105(4): 610-615.
Jacobs, W.M. : The use of the bioflavonoid compounds in the prevention or reduction in severity of erythroblastosis fetalis. Surg. Gyn. Ob. 1956, 103: 233-236.
Jarnfelt-Samsioe, A. et al: Serum bile acids, gamma-glutamyltransferase and routine liver function tests in emetic and nonemetic pregnancies. Gyn. Obs.Invest. 1986, 21: 169-176.
Jendryczko, A. & Drozdz, M. : Plasma retinol, beta-carotene and vitamin E levels in relation to the future risk of pre-eclampsia. Zent. Bl Gynakol. 1989, 111: 1,121-1,123.
Jovanovic-Peterson L & Peterson CM: Exercise and the nutritional management of diabetes during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am, 1996 Mar, 23:1, 75-86.
Klieger, J.A. et al: Abnormal pyridoxine metabolism in toxemia of pregnancy. Ann. NY Ac. Sci. 1969, 166: 288-296.
Koch R et al., Nutritional therapy for pregnant women with a metabolic disorder. Clin Perinatol, 1995 Mar, 22:1, 1-14.
Kolasa KM & Weismiller DG: Nutrition during pregnancy. Am Fam Physician, 1997 Jul, 56:1, 205-12, 216-8.
Koppe JG: Nutrition and breast-feeding. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 1995 Jul, 61:1, 73-8.
Kunz, J.R.M. 1982. The American Medical Association Family Medical Guide. Random House Pub, New York. 832 pp.
Kurzel, R.B. : Serum magnesium levels in pregnancy and preterm labor. Am. J. Perinatol. 1991, 8: 119-127.
Kynast, G. & Saling, E. : Effect of oral zinc application during pregnancy. Gyn. Ob. Invest. 1986, 21(3): 117-122.
Laurence, K.M. et al: Double-blind randomized controlled trial of folate treatment before conception to prevent recurrence of neural-tube defects. BMJ. 1981, 282: 1509.
Lazebnik, N. Et al: Zinc status, pregnancy complications and labor abnormalities. Am. J. Ob. Gyn. 1988, 158(1): 161-166.
Mahomed, K. Et al: Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. BMJ. 1989, 299: 826-829.
Malhotra, A. Et al: Placental zinc in normal and intra-uterine growth-retarded pregnancies. Br. J. Nutr. 1990, 63: 613-621.
Marcus, R.G. : Suppression of lactation with high doses of pyridoxine. S. Afr. Med. J. 1975: 2,155-2,156.
Martinez-Frias, M.L. & Salvador, J. : Megadose vitamin A and teratogenicity. Lancet, 1988, 1:236. (Letter)
Merkel, R.L. : The use of menadione bisulfite and ascorbic acid in the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a preliminary report. Am. J. Ob. Gyn. 1952, 64(2): 416-418.
Metz J et al., Biochemical indices of vitamin B12 nutrition in pregnant patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 levels. Am J Hematol, 1995 Apr, 48:4, 251-5.
Mills, J.L. et al: The absence of a relation between the periconceptual use of vitamins and neural-tube defects. NEJM. 1989,321(7): 430-435.
Mino, M. & Nagamatu, M. : An evaluation of nutritional status of vitamin E in pregnant women with respect to red blood cell tocopherol level. Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 1986, 56: 149-153.
Moghissi, K.S. Risk and Benefits of Nutritional Supplements During Pregnancy. Obstetrics And Gynecology, 58. 1980.16-22; 90(46): 31-3.
Morales, W.J. et al: The use of antenatal vitamin K in the prevention of early neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage. Am. J. Ob. Gyn. 1988, 159: 774-779.
Mowrey, D. & Clayson, D.: Motion sickness, ginger and psychophysics. Lancet, 1982, I: 655-657.
MRC Vitamin Study research group: Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the MRC Vitamin Study. Lancet, 1991, 338: 131-137.
Mukherjee, M.D. et al: Maternal zinc, iron, folic acid and protein nutriture and outcome of human pregnancy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1984, 40(3): 496-507.
Mulinare, J. Et al: Periconceptional use of multivitamins and the occurrence of neural tube defects. JAMA. 1988, 260(21):3,141-3,145.
Mulliner CM et al., A study exploring midwives' education in, knowledge of and attitudes to nutrition in pregnancy. Midwifery, 1995 Mar, 11:1, 37-41.
Mulinsky, A. Et al: Multivitamin/folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy reduces the prevalence of neural tube defects. JAMA. 1989, 262(20): 2,847-2,852.
Neggers YH et al., Factors influencing plasma zinc levels in low-income pregnant women. Biol Trace Elem Res, 1996 Oct-Nov, 55:1-2, 127-35.
O’Brien, P.M.S. et al: The effect of dietary supplementation with linoleic acid and linolenic acid on the pressor response to angiotensin II: a possible role in pregnancy-induced hypertension. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 1985, 19(3): 335-342.
Olsen, S. F. & Secher, N. J.: A Possible Preventive Effect of Low-Dose Fish Oil on Early Delivery and Preeclampsia: Indications From a 50 Year Old Controlled Trial. British Journal of Nutrition, 1990;64:599-609.
Petersdorf, R.G. & R.D. Adams. 1983. Harrison's Principles Of Internal Medicine. 10th ed. McGraw Hill pub co., New York. 2212 pp.
Plant, M.L. : Drinking in pregnancy and fetal harm: results from a Scottish prospective study. Midwifery, 1986,2(2): 81-85.
Pongpaew P et al., Vitamin B1, B2 and B6 during the course of pregnancy of rural and urban women in northeast Thailand. Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 1995, 65:2, 111-6.
Rhead, W.J. & Schrauzer, G.N.: Risks of long-term ascorbic acid overdosage. Nutr. Rev. 1971(11): 262-263.
Rice R: Fish and healthy pregnancy: more than just a red herring! Prof Care Mother Child, 1996, 6:6, 171-3.
Robinson S et al., Evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire used to assess nutrient intakes in pregnant women. Eur J Clin Nutr, 1996 May, 50:5, 302-8.
Rogers, K. S., Mohan, C., Vitamin B6 metabolism and diabetes, Biochemical Medicine and Metabolic Biology, Academic Press, Inc., 1994, Vol. 52, pp. 10-17.
Rogers, K. S., Higgins, E. S., Kline, E. S., Experimental diabetes causes mitochondrial loss and cytoplasmic enrichment of pyridoxal phosphate and aspartate aminotransferase activity, Biochemical Medicine and Metabolic Biology, Academic Press, Inc., 1986, Vol. 36, pp. 91-97.
Sadeh, M. : Action of magnesium sulfate in the treatment of preeclampsia-eclampsia. Stroke, 1989, 20(9): 1,273-1,275.
Sahakian, V. et al: Vitamin B6 is effective therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized double-blind placvebo-controlled study. Ob. Gyn. 1991, 78: 33-36.
Scariati PD et al., Water supplementation of infants in the first month of life. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 1997 Aug, 151:8, 830-2.
Schiff, E. et al: Arachidonic Acid Metabolism and the Pathophysiology and Prevention of Preeclampsia -- A Review. Israeli Journal of Medical Sciences, 1991;578:27:578-582.
Schwartz WJ 3rd & Thurnau GR: Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol, 1995 Sep, 38:3, 443-54.
Shatrugna V et al., Interaction between vitamin A and iron: effects of supplements in pregnancy. Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 1997, 67:3, 145-8.
Sheldon, W.L. et al: The effects of oral iron supplementation on zinc and magnesium levels during pregnancy. Br. J. Ob. Gyn. 1985, 92: 892-898.
Sibai, B.M. et al: Magnesium supplementation during pregnancy: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Am. J. Ob. Gyn. 1989, 161: 115-119.
Sivakumar B et al., Vitamin A requirements assessed by plasma response to supplementation during pregnancy. Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 1997, 67:4, 232-6.
Smithells, R.W. & M.J. Seller. Possible Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects by Periconceptional Vitamin Supplementation. Lancet. Feb 16, 1980.
Smithells, R.W. : Spina bifida and vitamins. BMJ. 1983, 286: 388-389.
Smithells, R.W. et al: Prevention of neural tube defect recurrences in Yorkshire: Final report. Lancet, 1989, 2: 498-499. (Letter)
Smyth PP et al., Maternal iodine status and thyroid volume during pregnancy: correlation with neonatal iodine intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1997 Sep, 82:9, 2840-3.
Spatling, L. & Spatling, G. : Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy: a double-blind study. Br. J. Ob. Gyn. 1988, 95: 120-125.
Splett-PL et al: Physicians' expectations for quality nutrition expertise and service in prenatal care.. J-Am-Diet-Assoc. 1994 Dec; 94(12): 1375-80.
Stanton, M. et al: Serum magnesium in women during pregnancy, while taking contraceptives and after menopause. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 1987, 6(4): 313-320.
Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M. et al: Neural-tube defects and derangement of homocysteine metabolism. NEJM. 1991, 324(3): 199-200. (Letter)
Stergachis, A. et al: Maternal Cigarette Smoking and The Risk of Tubal Pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1991; 133(4):332-337.
Story M: Promoting healthy eating and ensuring adequate weight gain in pregnant adolescents: issues and strategies. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1997 May 28, 817:, 321-33.
Subak-Sharpe, G.J. 1984. The Physician's Manual For Patients. Times Books Pub, New York. 607 pp.
Swanson, C.A. & King, J.C. : Zinc and pregnancy outcome. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1987, 46(5): 763-771.
Tamura T et al., Serum concentrations of zinc, folate, vitamins A and E, and proteins, and their relationships to pregnancy outcome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl, 1997, 165:, 63-70.
Thame M et al., Relationship between maternal nutritional status and infant's weight and body proportions at birth. Eur J Clin Nutr, 1997 Mar, 51:3, 134-8.
Tovar AR et al., Riboflavin and pyridoxine status in a group of pregnant Mexican women. Arch Med Res, 1996 Summer, 27:2, 195-200.
Truswell, A.S. : ABC of nutrition. Nutrition for pregnancy. BMJ. 1985, 291: 263-266.
Tulix, D. B., Allgood, V. E., Cidlowski, J. A., Modulation of steroid receptor-mediated gene expression by vitamin B6, The FASEB Journal, Vol. 8, March 1994, pp. 343-349.
Uauy-Dagach R & Mena P: Nutritional role of omega-3 fatty acids during the perinatal period. Clin Perinatol, 1995 Mar, 22:1, 157-75.
Villar, J. & Repke, J.T.: Calcium supplementation during pregnancy may reduce preterm delivery in high-risk populations. Am. J. Ob. Gyn. 1990, 163: 1,124-1,131.
Wachstein, M., Graffeo, L. W., Influence of vitamin B6 on the incidence of preeclampsia. Obstet, Gynecol, 1956, Vol. 8, pp. 177.
Wachstein, M., Gudaitis, A., Disturbance of vitamin B6 metabolism in pregnancy. II. The influence of various amounts of pyridoxine hydrochloride upon the abnormal tryptophane load test in pregnant women. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1953, Vol. 42, pp. 98.
Walji, H. 1992. Vitamin Guide: Essential Nutrients for Healthy Living. Rockport, MA: Element, Inc.
Ward, N.I. et al: Elemental factors in human fetal development. J. Nutr. Med. 1990, 1: 19-26.
Weinstein, B. et al: Oral administration of pyridoxine hydrochloride in the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Am. J. Ob. Gyn. 1944, 47: 389-394.
Wilcken, B. Maternal Vitamin B-6 Deficiency and Infant Atherosclerosis. Nutrition Reports International, 1976.
Wolff CB & Wolff HK: Maternal eating patterns and birth weight of Mexican American infants. Nutr Health, 1995, 10:2, 121-34.
Wolkind, S. & Zajicek, E. : Psycho-social correlates of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. H. Psychosom. Res. 1978, 22: 1-5.
Zeisel SH: Choline: essential for brain development and function. Adv Pediatr, 1997, 44:, 263-95.