Vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine) is a component of the water-soluble vitamin B-Complex vitamins. It is composed of three closely related chemical compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. These three compounds are metabolically and functionally interrelated and are readily interconverted.
Vitamin B-6 is involved in protein, fat, carbohydrate metabolism, and is a component of the molecular configuration of many enzymes. Vitamin B-6 functions primarily in the reactions involved in the nonoxidative degradation of amino acids.
Method of Action
Vitamin B-6 is found in cells in the active form as coenzyme pyridoxol phosphate, as well as in its amino form, pyridoxamine phosphate.
Vitamin B-6 participates in transamination. Vitamin B-6 catalyzes the reaction by acting as a carrier of the amino group. During transamination, pyridoxal phosphate accepts an amino group from an amino acid, and is subsequently converted to pyridoxamine phosphate. The amino group is then transferred to a receptor molecule (usually alpha-keto glutarate), and pyridoxal phosphate is regenerated. Transamination reactions can occur between any amino acid and a receptive alpha-keto acid.
Other metabolic processes catalyzed by vitamin B-6 are: deamination; decarboxylation, the removal of carbon dioxide from amino acids, a necessary step required for the synthesis of neurotransmitters from certain amino acids; and desulfuration, the transfer of a sulfur group from methionine to serine in order to form cysteine. All three processes utilize vitamin B-6 as a carrier compound. Vitamin B-6 is also involved in the formation of niacin from tryptophan.
Vitamin B-6 is an important enzyme in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and in the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glutamic acid.
Vitamin B-Complex, vitamin B-1, vitamin B-2, vitamin C, pantothenic acid, magnesium, potassium, linoleic acid, and sodium assist in the absorption of vitamin B-6. Absorption is decreased by tobacco, ethanol, coffee, the use of oral contraceptives, and exposure to radiation; it is destroyed by cooking.
Properties & Uses
Vitamin B-6 is used to treat anemic patients when the anemia is due to a vitamin B-6 deficiency.
Vitamin B-6 supplements can help correct the depression, malaise, glucose intolerance and increased tryptophan excretion in some women using oral contraceptives.
Treatment with large doses of vitamin B-6 may prevent the effects of isoniazid, a chemotherapeutic agent for tuberculosis. Vitamin B-6 doses may prevent isoniazid from inhibiting the conversion of glutamic acid, the only amino acid the brain metabolizes.
Consequence of Deficiency
Deficiency of vitamin B-6 can cause seizures by inhibiting the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA is a calming chemical and seizures can result if it is present in insufficient amounts.
Vitamin B-6 deficiency has been shown to increase urinary oxalate excretion. This represents the body's inability to convert glyoxalate to glycine, which is necessary to synthesize glycine and serine.
Deficiency in vitamin B-6 can be created by use of oral contraceptives, with subsequent symptoms including depression and increased urinary excretion of tryptophan.
The toxicity of vitamin B-6 is extremely low. Sleepiness may follow an injection of large doses (100 milligrams).
Recommended Dietary Allowance
age RDA (mg) RNI (mg) infants/children 0-6 months 0.3 0.2 7-9 months 0.6 0.3 10-12 months 0.6 0.4 1-3 years 1.0 0.7 4-6 years 1.1 0.9 7-10 years 1.4 1.0 males 11-14 years 1.7 1.2 15-18 years 2.0 1.5 19-50 years 2.0 1.4 51+ years 2.0 - females 11-14 years 1.4 1.0 15-18 years 1.5 1.0 19+ years 1.6 1.0 pregnancy 2.2 - lactation 2.1 -
A deficiency of vitamin B-6 is unlikely because, relative to the requirement, the amounts present in the general diet are more than sufficient. Since pyridoxine is involved in amino acid metabolism, the need for pyridoxine varies with dietary protein intake. For adults, approximately one milligram daily is minimal. The RDA standard is two milligrams per day for adults to ensure a safety margin for variances in individual need.
For over thirty years, Recommended Daily Amounts has existed in the United Kingdom. It has been used to measure the adequacy of an individual's diet. However, in 1991 the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) gave forth a whole new set of figures upon the request of the Department of Health's Chief Medical Officer. Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) is one of these sets collectively known as "Dietary Reference Values." RNI is an amount of a nutrient that is enough for almost every individuals, even someone who has high needs for the nutrient. This level of intake is, therefore, considerably higher than what most people would need. If individuals are consuming the RNI of a nutrient they are most unlikely to be deficient in that nutrient.
High: (1,000 - 10,000 mg/100 g)
Beef liver Blackstrap molasses Brewer's yeast Brown rice Herring Peanuts Pork liver Salmon Veal liver Walnuts Wheat germ
Medium: (100 - 1,000 mg/100 g)
Avocado Bananas Barley Butter Cabbage Carrots Cod Corn Egg Flounder Grapes Green peas Halibut Kale Mackerel Oat flakes Organ meats Pears Potatoes Rye bread Sardines Soybeans Tuna Whale Whole wheat
Low: (10 - 100 mg/100 g)
Apples Asparagus Beans Beet greens Black currants Cantaloupe Cheese Cherries Grapefruit Lemon Lettuce Milk Onion Orange Peach Raisins Strawberries Watermelon
Bendich, A., Cohen, M. In: Nutrition and Immunology. Alan R. Liss: New York, 1988, pp. 104-107.
Bessler, K.H. Int J Vit Nutr Res., 1988; 58: 105-118.
Borrman, W.R. 1979. Comprehensive Guide to Nutrition. New Horizons Pub Corp. Chicago, Illinois.
Cohen, M., Bendich, A. Toxicol Letters, 1986; 34: 129-139.
Dalton, K., Dalton, M.J.T. Acta Neurol Scand., 1987; 76: 8-11.
Driskell, J.A., Wesley, R.L., Hess, I.E. Nutr Rep Int., 1986; 34: 1031- 1040.
Ellis, J. M., J. Azuma, T. Watanabe, et.al. Survey and new data on treatment with pyridoxine of patients having clinical syndrome including the carpal tunnel and other defects. Res Comm Clin Path Pharm, 1977: 17; 165-7.
Ellis, J. M., K. Folkers, T. Watabe, et. al. Clinical results of a cross-over treatment with pyridoxine and placebo of the carpal tunnel syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr, 1979: 32; 2040-6.
Ellis, J. M., Folkers, K., Levy, M., Takemura, K., Shizukuishi, S., Ulrich, R., Harrison, R., Therapy with vitamin B6 with and without surgery for treatment of patients having the idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol, Pharmacol, 33 No. 2: 1981, pp. 331-344.
Ellis, J. M. Folkers, K., Levy, M., Shizukuishi, S., Lewandowski, J., Nishii, S., Shubert, H., Ulrich, R., Response of vitamin B6 deficiency and the carpal tunnel syndrome to pyridoxine, Proc. Nat'l. Academy Sci., (Med. Sciences), 79, No. 23: 1982, pp. 7494-7498.
Ellis, J. M. : Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with vitamin B6, Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 80: No. 7, July 1987.
Ellis, J. M., Folkers, K., Clinical aspects of treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with vitamin B6, Vitamin B6, Dakshinamurti, K. (ed.) Annals New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 585, 1990, pp. 302-320.
Ellis, J. M.: Diabetes: New Therapies. 1995.
Erick-M. Vitamin B-6 and ginger in morning sickness [letter] J-Am-Diet-Assoc. 1995 Apr; 95(4): 416.
Gaby, S.K., In: Vitamin Intake and Health: A Scientific Review. Marcel Dekker: New York, 1991, pp. 163-174.
Gaby, A.R. J Nutr Med., 1990; 1: 153-157.
Giraud-DW et al: Erythrocyte and plasma B-6 vitamer concentrations of long-term tobacco smokers, chewers, and nonusers. Am-J-Clin-Nutr. 1995 Jul; 62(1): 104-9.
Gridley, D.S., et al. Nutr Res., 1988; 8: 201-207.
Guthrie, Helen A. Introductory Nutrition. 5th edition. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Co., 1971.
Gvozdova, L.G., et al. Vop Pitan., 1966; 25: 40-44.
Kabir, H., Leklem, J.E., Miller, L.T. J Nutr., 1983; 113: 2412-2420.
Kang-Yoon-SA et al: Vitamin B-6 adequacy in neonatal nutrition: associations with preterm delivery, type of feeding, and vitamin B-6 supplementation. Am-J-Clin-Nutr. 1995 Nov; 62(5): 932-42.
Kirschmann, J.D. Nutrition Almanac: Nutrition Search. McGrew-Hill: New York. 1990.
Krause, Marie V. & Martha A. Hunscher. Food, Nutrition And Diet Therapy. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1972.
Kutsky, R.J. 1973. Handbook of Vitamins and Hormones. Van Nostrand Reinhold, Co. New York, New York. 278.
Lehninger, A.L. Principles of Biochemistry. Worth Publi, Inc, N Y. 1011.
McCully, K.S. Am J Pathol., 1969; 56: 111-128.
Murray, M.T. & Pizzorno, J.E. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing,1991.
Parry, G.J., Bredesen D.E. Neurology, 1985; 35: 1466-1468.
Pfeiffer, Carl D., M.D. Mental And Elemental Nutrients. New Canaan, Conn. Keats Publishing, 1975.
Recommended Dietary Allowances. 1989. National Academy of Science, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
Reynolds, R.D., Natta, C.L. Depressed plasma pyridoxal phosphate concentrations in adult asthmatics. Am J Clin Nutr. 41 (1985): 684-688.
Ribaya-Mercado, J.D., et al. FASEB J., 1988; 2: A847.
Rinehart, J.F., Greenburg, L.D. Am J Clin Nutr., 1956; 4: 318-325.
Schaumburg, H., et al. N Eng J Med., 1983; 309: 445-448.
Serofontein, W.J., et al. Atherosclerosis, 1986; 59: 341-346.
Swift, M.E., Shultz, T.D. Nutr Rep Int., 1986; 34: 1-14.
Talbott, M.C., Miller, L.T., Kerkvliet, N.I. Am J Clin Nutr., 1987; 46: 659- 664.
Thomas, C.L. 1985. Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Co. Pub., Philadelphia. 2170.
Vermaak, M.E., et al. S. Afr Med J., 1986; 70: 195-196.
Vutyavanich-T et al: Pyridoxine for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am-J-Obstet-Gynecol. 1995 Sep; 173(3 Pt 1): 881-4.
Walji, H., Vitamin Guide: Essential nutrients for healthy living., Element: Dorset, U.K. 1992.
Walji, H., Vitamin Minerals & Dietary Supplements., Hodder Headline Plc.: London, U.K. 1994.
Weisburger, J. Am J Clin Nutr., 1991; 53: S226-S237.
Williams, S.R. 1981. Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Times Mirror Mosby College Publishing. St. Louis, Missouri.
Wilson, J. Walter. 1957. Clinical and immunological aspects of fungous disease. Charles C. Thomas; Springfield, Illinois.
- Product Categories
- Detox & Immunity
- Digestive Health
- Joint Health
- Weight Loss
- Popular Products
- CellRenew Collagen Hyaluronic Acid
- Foundation Blue-Green Algae
- Reference Materials
- Product Testimonials
- Health Journal Archive
- Health Briefs
- Health Basics
- Frequent Product Q&A's
- Med-Scope (health database)
- Health Conditions
- Natural Solutions
- Alternative Therapies
- Toxicity Sources
- Foods Advice
- Anatomy & Fitness
We test only on humans