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Vitamin E Abstracts No.6350

Vitamin E Abstracts No.6350

Bone marrow transplant

Bone marrow transplant (BMT)

The conditioning therapy given to bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients creates a high oxidant stress, resulting in a measured reduction in antioxidants, such as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), vitamin E, and cell peroxide fragilities.

Use of vitamin E and glutamine in the successful treatment of severe veno-occlusive disease following bone marrow transplantation. Nattakom-TV; Charlton-A; Wilmore-DW. Nutr-Clin-Pract. 1995 Feb; 10(1): 16-8.

Brain disorders

Brain disorders

The effects of daily intraperitoneal injections of alpha-tocopherol (30 mg/kg per day) and synthetic antioxidant IHFAN-30 (30 mg/day) in rats were compared during low-level ionizing radiation (10 days, dose rate 5 mGy/h, total dose 1.2 Gy). There were analysed: (1) amplitude of population spike of hippocampal slices; (2) endogenous phosphorylation in vitro of hippocampal synaptic proteins in the presence of cAMP; (3) formation, manifestation and reduction of food-procuring reflex. The findings showed that antioxidants made some correction of the functional state of hippocampal slices and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation system activity in brain cells from irradiated animals. No influence on training and memory functions was detected.

[The effect of antioxidants on functional brain disorders caused by low-intensity ionizing radiation] Godukhin-OV; Arkhipov-VI; Shipakina-TG; Kalemenev-SV; Burlakova-EB. Radiats-Biol-Radioecol. 1995 Jul-Aug; 35(4): 500-6.



Observed the protective effects of vitamin E on impaired neutrophil phagocytic function in patients (# 22) with severe burn.

The results suggested that in severely burned patients the use of free radical scavenger and antioxidant could protect the neutrophil function. The optimal dosage of vitamin E will be further assessed.

[Protective effects of vitamin E on impaired neutrophil phagocytic function in patients with severe burn] Chai-J; Guo-Z; Sheng-Z. Chung-Hua-Cheng-Hsing-Shao-Shang-Wai-Ko-Tsa-Chih. 1995 Jan; 11(1): 32-5.



Pilot study, examining the cardioprotective effect of an antioxidant regimen in patients with malignancies receiving high dose chemo- or radiotherapy (placebo versus vitamin E and C and N-acetylcysteine).

Patients on antioxidants showed no significant fall in ejection fraction EF.

The preliminary results suggest efficient cardioprotection by this cheap and safe antioxidant combination, so that larger studies are warranted for confirmation.

[Cardioprotection in chemo- and radiotherapy for malignant diseases--an echocardiographic pilot study] Wagdi-P; Rouvinez-G; Fluri-M; Aeschbacher-B; Thoni-A; Schefer-H; Meier-B. Schweiz-Rundsch-Med-Prax. 1995 Oct 24; 84(43): 1220-3.



Alcohol ingestion promotes lipoperoxidation and alters cellular antioxidant mechanisms. Alpha-tocopherol levels decrease in alcoholics as severity of liver damage increases.

Alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly lower in patients with more severe liver disease. This difference was not significant when vitamin E levels were corrected by cholesterol. Oral supplementation significantly increased serum vitamin E levels in the experimental group.

Life table analysis did not show significant differences in mortality between the two groups.

Vitamin E supplementation with adequate doses of an alpha-tocopheryl acetate formulation during 1 year did not influence hepatic laboratory parameters, mortality or hospitalization rates of decompensated alcoholic cirrhotics, although serum levels of the vitamin significantly increased.

Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation in alcoholic cirrhotics. de-la-Maza-MP; Petermann-M; Bunout-D; Hirsch-S. J-Am-Coll-Nutr. 1995 Apr; 14(2): 192-6.

Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease CAD

Researchers say that supplementation with vitamin E has not been proven to prevent coronary artery disease (CAD), and should not be prescribed due to possible long-term side effects. While recent studies suggest vitamin E may prevent CAD, these researchers note that several main factors have yet to be determined, such as the optimum dose, duration of use, and method of consumption. Researchers emphasize the importance of a low-fat diet, high in fruits and vegetables that are good sources of vitamin E, rather than dependence on supplementation.

Spencer, Anne P. MD, et al: Archives of Internal Medicine, June 1999; 159:1279-1280; 1313-1320

Before the widespread use of vitamin E in any dosage regimen can be recommended for the prevention of CAD, more information on its efficacy and adverse effects must be obtained. Unfortunately, the results of ongoing studies will not be available for several years. Until then, pharmacists can play a major role in monitoring vitamin E supplementation and educating both patients and other healthcare professionals about its potential role in decreasing the risk of coronary artery disease.

Vitamin E and the risk of coronary artery disease. Young-EG; Frazier-JL. Ann-Pharmacother. 1995 May; 29(5): 531-3.

Elderly & Vitamin E


Elderly patients with stable effort angina underwent an oral-glucose-tolerance test before and after vitamin E supplementation (900 mg/d for 4 mo).

Despite similar fasting and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations, vitamin E administration (compared with placebo) lowered fasting (88 +/- 14 and 68 +/- 9 pmol/L, P < 0.02) and 2-h (348 +/- 43 and 263 +/- 28 pmol/L, P < 0.05) plasma insulin concentrations, plasma triglyceride concentrations (1.34 +/- 0.06 and 1.07 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, P < 0.05), and the ratio of plasma LDL to HDL cholesterol (7.64 +/- 0.31 and 5.52 +/- 0.38, P < 0.02).

Vitamin E administration was associated with higher nonoxidative glucose metabolism (18.1 +/- 0.5 and 10.6 +/- 0.7 mumol.kg lean body mass-1.min-1, P < 0.03) than was placebo administration during the euglycemic glucose clamp.

Chronic intake of pharmacological doses of vitamin E might be useful in the therapy of elderly insulin-resistant patients with coronary heart disease.

Chronic intake of pharmacological doses of vitamin E might be useful in the therapy of elderly patients with coronary heart disease. Paolisso-G; Gambardella-A; Giugliano-D; Galzerano-D; Amato-L; Volpe-C; Balbi-V; Varricchio-M; D'Onofrio-F. Am-J-Clin-Nutr. 1995 Apr; 61(4): 848-52.



The immunosuppressant cyclosporine induces acute hemolysis (hemolytic uremic syndrome) in some patients after transplantation, possibly because of its effects on the vascular endothelium.

Vitamin E was effective in treating the intravascular hemolysis.

Acute hemolysis during cyclosporine therapy successfully treated with vitamin E. Azuma-E; Hirayama-M; Nakano-T; Nagai-M; Hiratake-S; Komada-Y; Sakurai-M. Bone-Marrow-Transplant. 1995 Aug; 16(2): 321-2.

Infants & Vitamin E


Plasma vitamin A and E levels were inadequate in very low birth weight infants receiving a continuous infusion of a parenteral multivitamin preparation, 1.5 ml/kg per day, in dextrose-amino acid solution. A new delivery system using 2 ml/kg per day, infused for 6 hours from the first day of life, avoided loss during infusion and significantly improved plasma vitamin A and E levels during the first 28 days of life in very low birth weight infants.

Vitamin A and E status in very low birth weight infants: development of an improved parenteral delivery system. Inder-TE; Carr-AC; Winterbourn-CC; Austin-NC; Darlow-BA. J-Pediatr. 1995 Jan; 126(1): 128-31.

LDL oxidation & Vitamin E

LDL oxidation

To evaluate the effect of vitamin E (1,600 IU/day) supplementation on the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and LDL subfractions to oxidation and on protein glycation in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).

Vitamin E content in plasma and LDL increased 4.0- and 3.7-fold, respectively, in the vitamin E-treated group. Vitamin E decreased the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in comparison with placebo.
Supplementation of vitamin E in NIDDM leads to enrichment of LDL and LDL subfractions and reduced susceptibility to oxidation. Despite a greater percentage increase in vitamin E content in small dense LDL, it remained substantially more susceptible to oxidation than was buoyant LDL. This suggests that dense, LDL may gain less protection against oxidation from antioxidant supplementation than does larger, more buoyant LDL. In contrast to previous reports, vitamin E supplementation did not reduce glycation of intracellular or plasma proteins.

Effects of Vitamin E on susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein subfractions to oxidation and on protein glycation in NIDDM. Reaven-PD; Herold-DA; Barnett-J; Edelman-S. Diabetes-Care. 1995 Jun; 18(6): 807-16.

Leg cramps


Leg cramps
Nocturnal Leg Cramps

Leg cramps - differential diagnosis and management

Leg cramps are a common problem, especially in the elderly.

The differential diagnosis is extensive and includes the following conditions: true cramps, such as those related to heat, hemodialysis and electrolyte disturbances, as well as idiopathic cramps (the most common type); contractures occurring in conditions such as metabolic myopathies and thyroid disease; tetany, which is usually related to electrolyte disturbances, and dystonias, such as occupational cramps and those related to antipsychotic medications.

Other leg problems that are not cramps, such as restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements, also must be distinguished.

The etiology of idiopathic leg cramps is not clear. Treatments for leg cramps include stretching exercises, quinine sulfate and vitamin E, but no treatment is conclusively effective. Nonetheless, in many patients relief of symptoms is achieved with one or more of these treatments.

Riley JD & Antony SJ: Leg cramps: differential diagnosis and management [see comments]. Am Fam Physician, 1995 Nov 1, 52:6, 1794-8.

Nocturnal Leg Cramps Without Medication

This is an observation by a physician who, before using pharmacologic therapy for muscle cramps, recommends massaging each leg 10 to 15 minutes before bed, while keeping them elevated on blankets which rest on pillows at the foot of the bed. Before considering drug therapy he evaluates patients again after 4 to 6 weeks. The author believes that this will reduce polypharmacy in the elderly.

"Working Out Leg Cramps Without Medication", Osborne, Robert M., MD, Cortlandt Forum, May 1991;71.



The conditioning therapy given to bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients creates a high oxidant stress, resulting in a measured reduction in antioxidants, such as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), vitamin E, and cell peroxide fragilities.

Veno-occlusive disease of the liver is a common complication following the administration of conditioning regimens to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Free-radical damage to the liver is believed to be the cause and maintenance of adequate antioxidant stores of glutathione and vitamin E may be a means of counteracting the hepatotoxicity.

Administration of this therapy was associated with reversal of the clinical and biochemical signs of severe hepatic dysfunction.

Use of vitamin E and glutamine in the successful treatment of severe veno-occlusive disease following bone marrow transplantation. Nattakom-TV; Charlton-A; Wilmore-DW. Nutr-Clin-Pract. 1995 Feb; 10(1): 16-8.

Liver neoplasms

Liver neoplasms

Patients with liver tumors are known to reveal antioxidant system disorders which lead to accumulation of products of lipids peroxidation and lower resistance. Levels of malonic dialdehyde as well as the antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase, catalase, alpha-tocopherol and retinol) in liver and tumor have been followed in 28 patients in whom liver was removed to treat malignant tumors. Liver and tumor tissue were shown to contain more dialdehyde and less superoxide dismutase and catalase than in the livers of accident victims. Treatment with alpha-tocoferol (600 mg), retinol (100,000 MU) and ascorbic acid (1.5 g) for 7 days before surgery was found to significantly reduce dialdehyde level in the liver. Also, the catalase level increased. Treatment with alpha-tocoferol and retinol resulted in their selective accumulation in the liver. No changes in lipid peroxidation or accumulation of alpha-tocoferol in tumor were recorded. Purulent and septic complications were 1.6 times less frequent after preoperative antioxidant treatment than in controls. It is recommended that said antioxidant treatment should be used to correct lipid peroxidation and to improve the effectiveness of therapy of liver cancer.

[The role of alpha-tocopherol and retinol in correcting disorders of lipid peroxidation in patients with malignant liver neoplasms] Gorozhanskaia-EG; Patiutko-II; Sagaidak-IV. Vopr-Onkol. 1995; 41(1): 47-51.

Male infertility

Male infertility

To determine the effectiveness of the in vivo administration of vitamin E (600 mg/d of vitamin E (Ephynal, 300 mg tablets) as treatment for reactive oxygen species-associated male infertility.

Rise in the blood serum vitamin E levels after treatment accompanied by improvement in one of the sperm function tests: the zona binding assay.

Oral administration of vitamin E significantly improves the in vitro function of human spermatozoa as assessed by the zona binding test.

A double-blind randomized placebo cross-over controlled trial using the antioxidant vitamin E to treat reactive oxygen species associated male infertility. Kessopoulou-E; Powers-HJ; Sharma-KK; Pearson-MJ; Russell-JM; Cooke-ID; Barratt-CL. Fertil-Steril. 1995 Oct; 64(4): 825-31.

Memory loss/Deficiency

Memory loss/Deficiency

Low levels of vitamin E may be associated with memory loss among the senior population, according to this study that observed seniors aged 60 or older between 1988 and1994. Eleven percent of the seniors who had vitamin E levels lower than the standard level had memory problems. Also, those who did not eat sufficient diets or skipped meals had 20% greater memory difficulties compared to those who had regular diets. Dietary intake of vitamin E seems most effective in improving memory, as opposed to supplemental intake.

Perkins AJ, Hendrie HC, Callahan CM, Gao S, Unverzagt FW, Xu Y, Hall KS, Hui SL: Association of antioxidants with memory in a multiethnic elderly sample using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Am J Epidemiol 1999 Jul 1;150(1):37-44

Myelodysplastic (MDS)

Myelodysplastic (MDS)

Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, 23 men and 11 women, were treated with 13-cis-retinoic acid. The dose of retinoic acid ranged between 10 and 60 mg/m2/daily and was administered in combination with vitamin E to diminish side effects.

The administration of 13-cis-retinoic acid improves the hematological picture in a small number of MDS patients (11.7%).

Treatment of 34 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes with 13-CIS retinoic acid. Bourantas-KL; Tsiara-S; Christou-L. Eur-J-Haematol. 1995 Oct; 55(4): 235-9.



To determine the effect of vitamin E prophylaxis and treatment on the sequelae of severe (threshold) retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in infants treated with cryotherapy.

All infants with birth weights < or = 1250 gm received supplements of vitamin E using standard preparations.

The combination of cryotherapy with anti-oxidant prophylaxis and treatment appeared to decrease the severity and sequelae of threshold ROP. This hypothesis deserves testing in a large, randomized clinical trial.

Severe retinopathy of prematurity in infants with birth weights less than 1250 grams: incidence and outcome of treatment with pharmacologic serum levels of vitamin E in addition to cryotherapy from 1985 to 1991. Johnson-L; Quinn-GE; Abbasi-S; Gerdes-J; Bowen-FW; Bhutani-V. J-Pediatr. 1995 Oct; 127(4): 632-9.


The state of excessive fibroblastic proliferation for wound healing results in hypertrophic and keloid scars. It has been well established that some of the trace elements (such as zinc) are essential in wound healing, and there are appreciable changes in trace elements in various disease states.

The levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and selenium (Se) in serum, normal skin and scar of 40 keloid and hypertrophic scar patients were assessed. There was a significant increase of manganese (Mn) level in skin of burn, trauma, and surgical incision patients compared to controls.

Furthermore, the zinc, copper, and selenium contents of the skin in incision patients were decreased significantly when compared to other groups.

No significant changes occurred regarding serum levels of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in the different groups.

No relationships between the hypertrophic and keloid scar to trace elements were found; however, because of the limited numbers of patients, a definite conclusion could not be drawn.

Bang RL & Dashti H: Keloid and hypertrophic scars: trace element alteration. Nutrition, 1995 Sep-Oct, 11:5 Suppl, 527-31.



The generation of free oxygen radicals is believed to play an important pathogenic role in the development of various disorders. More than other tissues, the skin is exposed to numerous environmental chemical and physical agents such as ultraviolet light causing oxidative stress. In the skin this results in several short- and long-term adverse effects such as erythema, edema, skin thickening, wrinkling, and an increased incidence of skin cancer or precursor lesions.

Vitamin E is the major naturally occurring lipid-soluble non-enzymatic antioxidant protecting skin from the adverse effects of oxidative stress including photoaging. Its chemistry and its physiological function as a major antioxidative and anti-inflammatory agent, in particular with respect to its photoprotective, antiphotoaging properties.

Many studies document that vitamin E occupies a central position as a highly efficient antioxidant, thereby providing possibilities to decrease the frequency and severity of pathological events in the skin. For this purpose increased efforts in developing appropriate systemic and local pharmacological preparations of vitamin E are required.

The role of vitamin E in normal and damaged skin. Nachbar-F; Korting-HC. J-Mol-Med. 1995 Jan; 73(1): 7-17.



We report a 44-year-old woman in whom intestinal bypass for obesity at age 23 resulted in chronic malabsorption. After hysterectomy for menorrhagia due to atypical endometrial hyperplasia, the finding of myometrial lipofuscinosis led to a demonstration of vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin E supplementation led to an unexpected improvement in the unsteadiness of gait and slurring of speech of which she had also complained. We suggest that supplementation with vitamin E should be routine in all patients with persistent severe steatorrhoea.

Symptomatic vitamin E deficiency diagnosed after histological recognition of myometrial lipofuscinosis. Evans-DJ; Berney-DM; Pollock-DJ. Lancet. 1995 Aug 26; 346(8974): 545-6.



Vitamin E, a serum alpha-tocopherol antioxidant, may prevent diseases in which minimal antioxidant levels were implicated. Unfortunately, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study in August 1999, 27% among 16,300 adults 18 years of age or older had low concentrations of serum vitamin E. Out of all those tested, African Americans had the lowest vitamin E concentrations. This discovery may explain why they are at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer. This group may particularly benefit from taking vitamin E supplements. Studies are currently being conducted to confirm the benefit of vitamin E in reducing chronic diseases.

Ford ES, Sowell A. Serum alpha-tocopherol status in the United States population: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol 1999 Aug 1;150(3):290-300

Atherosclerosis & Vitamin E


Vitamin E may help to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting the transport of oxidized LDL cholesterol into cells, thereby preventing cellular damage to the arterial lining. Researchers demonstrated that vitamin E downregulates expression of CD36, a gene required for the cell-surface receptor of oxidized LDL. Reduced levels of this receptor lead to reduced uptake of LDL cholesterol, and less arterial damage.

Ricciarelli R, Zingg JM, Azzi A: Vitamin E Reduces the Uptake of Oxidized LDL by Inhibiting CD36 Scavenger Receptor Expression in Cultured Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells. Circulation 2000 Jul 4;102(1):82-87

Osteoarthritis & Vitamin E


Oxidative damage to chondrocytes - the cells of cartilage - may play a significant role in the development of osteoarthritis and cartilage aging, according to this study. Vitamin E may drastically reduce oxidation-induced degradation of the cartilage matrix, thereby slowing or preventing the development of osteoarthritis. Researchers conducted several in vitro tests on cartilage matrix proteins and chondrocytes in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and vitamin E, among other substances.

Tiku ML, Shah R, Allison GT: Evidence Linking Chondrocyte Lipid Peroxidation to Cartilage Matrix Protein Degradation. POSSIBLE ROLE IN CARTILAGE AGING AND THE PATHOGENESIS OF OSTEOARTHRITIS, J Biol Chem 2000 Jun 23;275(26)

Aging & Vitamin E


Tocotrienols found in vitamin E protect against oxidative damage and may therefore lengthen life span, according to this study conducted on the nematode C. elegans. Test subjects were given tocotrienols before or after exposure to UV-B light, a known inducer of oxidative stress. Administration of tocotrienols before exposure to UV light prevented the shortened life span exhibited in nematodes that did not receive tocotrienols. Nematodes that were administered tocotrienols after exposure to UV light lived longer than non-tocotrienol subjects, and experienced greater protection against oxidative damage if tocotrienol supplementation continued through life.

Adachi H, Ishii N: Effects of tocotrienols on life span and protein carbonylation in Caenorhabditis elegans, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000 Jun;55(6):B280-5

Cognitive Function & Vitamin E

Cognitive Function

Supplementation with vitamin C and/or vitamin E may protect against vascular dementia and other non-Alzheimer's dementia, according to this study on 3,385 elderly Japanese-American men living in Hawaii over a period of 11 years. Subjects completed questionnaires and dementia prevalence surveys several times during the 11-year period, including a dietary questionnaire in 1988 to determine vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation status. Statistical analysis revealed that men who supplemented with either or both vitamin C and vitamin E exhibited significantly lower incidences of vascular and mixed/other dementia. No effect was seen with Alzheimer's-type dementia. Men who supplemented also scored higher on cognitive function tests than did non-supplementing men.

Masaki KH, et al: Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function and dementia in elderly men, Neurology 2000 Mar 28;54(6):1265-72

Lifestyle & Vitamin E


Lifestyle factors like smoking and obesity may affect blood levels of beta carotene and vitamin E, according to this cross-sectional study of 253 men and 276 women ages 46 to 67 years. Subjects completed a modified diet history questionnaire and underwent several methods of body fat measurement, including BMI, impedance analysis, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference. People with high levels of beta carotene exhibited high cholesterol, high beta carotene intake, and high fiber intake. Smoking and obesity were associated with low beta carotene levels. People with high levels of vitamin E had high levels of serum cholesterol, obesity, and vitamin E intake. In women, blood vitamin E concentrations were associated with high intakes of vitamin C and selenium.

Wallstrom P, et al: Serum concentrations of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol are associated with diet, smoking, and general and central adiposity, Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Apr;73(4):777-85

Melanoma growth

Melanoma growth

Vitamin E succinate (VES), an ester analogue of vitamin E, may inhibit growth of melanoma in vivo, according to this study. Previous studies had indicated that VES inhibited cancer growth in vitro, but this study also tested its effects in mice. In an in vitro test using Cell Titer 96 AQ assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques, VES was found to both increase the rate of apoptosis and decrease proliferation rates. For the in vivo part of the study, B16F10 melanoma cells were allografted in athymic nude mice and the antitumor effect of VES was investigated. Cell proliferation and apoptosis (cell death) were determined by an immunohistochemical method. VES significantly inhibited melanoma growth in mice, where it caused an increase in the apoptosis rates of the cells.

Malafa MP, Fokum FD, Mowlavi A, Abusief M, King M: Vitamin E inhibits melanoma growth in mice, Surgery 2002 Jan;131(1):85-91