Birth weight (2)
Birth weight (2)
Infants were fed either soy formula or soy formula with added selenium. Selenium intakes of infants fed SF+SE were similar to the recommended dietary allowance and significantly greater than those of SF-fed infants. The SF group had significantly lower plasma, erythrocyte, and urine selenium, and lower plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities at 16 wk compared to those of infants fed SF+SE.
A decrease in plasma selenium was observed in SF-fed infants, whereas no differences in plasma selenium were found in infants fed SF+SE. These results indicate that selenate added to soy formula is highly available and effective at maintaining infant plasma and erythrocyte selenium concentrations and GPx activities that are greater than those of infants fed soy formula not fortified with selenium.
Selenate fortification improves selenium status of term infants fed soy formula. Smith-AM et al., Am-J-Clin-Nutr. 1995 Jan; 61(l): 44-7.
Determined the selenium content of nuts from different regions of Brazil.
The average +/- standard deviation and range of selenium concentrations in ppm, fresh weight for nuts from Acre-Rondonia and Manaus-Belem regions were, respectively, 3.06 +/- 4.01 (0.03-31.7) and 36.0 +/- 50.0 (1.25-512.0). The toxicology of Brazil nut consumption is discussed.
Selenium content of Brazil nuts from two geographic locations in Brazil. Chang-JC et al., Chemosphere. 1995 Feb; 30(4): 801-2.
Breast milk (1)
Breast milk (1)
Selenium levels in human milk in the winter period ranged from 5.3 micrograms/I to 23.8 micrograins/l, the mean value being I 1.0 micrograms/I. The nursing women were divided into several groups according to the results of a questionnaire, i.e. according to their social status (refugees or otherwise), number of deliveries, post partum days, the weight they had gained during pregnancy, their age and smoking habits. The mean levels of selenium for each group are presented. Selenium was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry.
Selenium content of breast milk. Mandic-Z et al., Z-LebensmUnters-Forsch. 1995 Sep; 201(3): 209-12.
Breast milk (2)
Breast milk (2)
Maternal selenium intake determines selenium concentration in human milk. Infants fed human milk have higher selenium intake than those fed commercially available formula milk or baby foods. Selenium compounds found in breast milk seem to be more biologically available for infant nutrition than those in formulas. Increased requirements of selenium have been observed in pregnant and lactating women. Supplementation of lactating and pregnant women with different selenium compounds has been assayed, and selenium supplementation of soil and cows has been used to increase the selenium status of children fed infant formula made from cow's milk.
Selenium in human lactation. Sanz-Alaejos-M & Diaz-Romero-C. Nutr-Rev. 1995 53(6): 159-66.
Breast milk (3)
Breast milk (3)
Plasma zinc, copper, and selenium concentrations were deten-nined in 129 full-term infants. Of these, 49 infants were exclusively breast-fed (HM), 45 received various commercially available cow's milk formulae (F) and 35 infants were fed partially hydrolysed whey protein formula (PHF).
Plasma selenium was low at birth (40 +/- 9 micrograms 1-1) and remained constant in breast-fed infants. In infants on PHF there was a steeper decline of plasma Se (20 +/- 6 micrograms 1-1) than in infants fed cow's milk formula (29 +/- 9 micrograms 1-1). Other parameters of the Se status showed a similar pattern. Despite the different zinc, copper, and selenium supply, plus presumedly different bioavailability, all the infants thrived.
Trace mineral status of full-term infants fed human milk, milk-based formula or partially hydrolysed whey protein formula. Jochum-F et al., Analyst. 1995 Mar; 120(3): 905-9.
Garlic cultivated with selenite fertilization showed powerful chemopreventive activity in rat mammary tumor model (Carcinogenesis 15, 573-576, 1994). To ascertain the dependence on the action of selenium.
Suggests that the anti-cancer activity of the high-selenium garlic was likely to be accounted for by the effect of selenium, rather than the effect of garlic per se. A continuous feeding of the high-selenium garlic produced a modest increase in total selenium in various tissues.
The ability of the high-selenium garlic to protect against tumorigenesis is primarily dependent on increased intake of selenium provided by the vegetable. Future research will be focused on the chemical form of selenium in the garlic.
Efficacy of cancer prevention by high-selenium garlic is primarily dependent on the action of selenium. Ip-C & Lisk-DJ. Carcinogenesis. 1995 Nov; 16(11): 2649-52.
Glutathione peroxidases (GPX), enzymes that catalyze the reduction of reactive intermediates, have been implicated in the action of several cytostatic drugs. Two major types of GPX have been found: a selenium-dependent form (SEGPX) which is active with both hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides, and a selenium-independent GPX which is only active with organic hydroperoxides.
Primary oral/oropharyngeal and laryngeal tumors had lower SEGPX activities than the matched normal mucosa. TGPX activities were similar in normal and tumor tissue. Metastases contained slightly more
SEGPX and TGPX activity than the matched tumor tissue.
The inherent anti-tumor drug resistance of human neck squamous cell carcinoma is not mediated by increased glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity in the tumor tissue.
Glutathione peroxidases in human head and neck cancer. Mulder-TP et al., Acta-Otolaryngol-Stockh. 1995 Mar; 11 5(2): 331-3.
Cancer (3) (kidney)
Cancer (3) (kidney)
Selenium-dependent (Se-GSH-Px), selenium-independent (non-Se-GSH-Px) glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase (GSSG-Rx) activities have been determined in cancerous and non-cancerous human adult kidneys.
Se-GSH-Px activity was found to be lower in tumour in 17 cases, out of 29, and the non-Se-GSH-Px activity in 20. In 20 cases out of 29 GSSG-RX was found to be lower in tumour. It was concluded that changes in the factors involved in the anti-oxidative protection actually occur in human kidney tumour.
Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in cancerous and non-cancerous human kidney tissues. Di-Ilio-C et al., Cancer-Lett. 1995 May 4; 91(l): 19-23.
Cancer mortality (4) (Japan)
Cancer mortality (4) (Japan)
Selenium and molybdenum have inhibitory effects on gastrointestinal carcinogenesis.
Selenium was not associated significantly with cancer mortality.
Further investigations are needed for causal interpretation of these results.
Distribution of selenium and molybdenum and cancer mortality in Niigata, Japan. Nakadaira-H et al., Arch-Environ-Health. 1995 Sep-Oct; 50(5): 374-80.
Cervical cancer & Selenium
Selenium (Se) concentration in serum, hair, normal cervix tissue or tissue of cervix cancer was determined.
Results showed that Se concentration in serum and cancer tissue of uterine cervix in patients with cancer of uterine cervix was significantly lower than that in controls but no significant difference of Se concentration was observed in hair.
Se concentration in rice, water and soil in the high incidence areas of cervical cancer was significantly lower than that in the low incidence areas. Se deficiency may play a role in the carcinogenesis of uterine cervix.
[Relation between selenium and cancer of uterine cervix] Lou-H et al., Chung-Hua-Chung-LiuTsa-Chih. 1995 Mar; 17(2): 112-4.
Measured selenium (Se) for a possible environmental factor which modulates the expressivity of cholestasis of pregnancy and explains the seasonal and annual variations observed in Finland and Chile.
In patients with cholestasis of pregnancy, plasma and erythrocytic Se and GSH-PX activity were lower than in normal pregnant women.
[Can a selenium deficiency affect the pathogenesis of cholestasis in pregnancy?] Ribalta-J et al., Gastroenterol-Hepatol. 1995 Mar; 18(3): 11420.
Cirrhosis & Selenium
The relationship among impaired selenium status, lipid peroxidation, and liver function was examined in patients with severe alcoholic cirrhosis. Plasma selenium was found to be significantly lower (mean SD: 54 +/- 13 micrograms/L) than in healthy controls (83 +/- 11 micrograms/L)
Low selenium status in alcoholic cirrhosis is correlated to liver function and could be improved by supplementation.
Low selenium status in alcoholic cirrhosis is correlated with aminopyrine breath test. Preliminary effects of selenium supplementation. Van-Gossum-A; Neve-J. Biol-Trace-Elem-Res. 1995 Jan-Mar; 47(1-3): 201-7.
Composition of foods
Composition of foods
The USDA's Nutrient Data Bank contains a wealth of information on the composition of foods. These data are made available to the public through Agriculture Handbook No. 8, Composition of Foods: Raw, Processed, Prepared, its computerized form-the USDA Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference, and other publications. Food components in Agriculture Handbook No. 8 include proximate components, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, cholesterol, phytosterols, and amino acids. Other tables and data sets containing food components of special interest such as vitamins D and K, selenium, and sugars, are also available. This paper describes how to obtain the data in either printed or electronic form. Information on obtaining the data through the Nutrient Data Bank Bulletin Board or the Internet is also presented.
Information from USDA's Nutrient Data Bank. Haytowitz-DB. J-Nutr. 1995 Jul; 125(7): 1952-5.
Cystic fibrosis (1)
Cystic fibrosis (1)
Lipid peroxidation was assessed in cystic fibrosis children (#27)
Results showed that improvement of lipid peroxidation markers was not related to the selenium supplementation. Nevertheless, oxidative stress sustained by cystic fibrosis children must be taken into account so that it does not aggravate the prognosis of the disease.
Effect of double-blind cross-over selenium supplementation on lipid peroxidation markers in cystic fibrosis patients. Portal-B; Richard-MJ; Coudray-C; Arnaud-J; Favier-A. Clin-Chim-Acta. 1995 Jan 3 1; 234(1-2): 137-46.
Cystic fibrosis (2)
Cystic fibrosis (2)
Cystic fibrosis often combines an infectious pathology with a syndrome of malabsorption, both potentially capable of favoring the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. This study was a simultaneous evaluation of the main antioxidant systems dependent on micronutrients and of lipid peroxidation products
Plasma of cystic fibrosis patients showed very low concentrations of beta-carotene (0.30 +/- 0.2 vs 1.63 +/- 0.5 mumol/g cholesterol, P < 0.0001) and a lower activity of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (263.6 +/- 42 vs 296.9 +/- 57 U/L, P = 0.028). In
Results suggested that nutritional deficiencies resulting from malabsorption could considerably amplify disorders related to toxicity of reactive oxygen species. These nutritional deficits could also be aggravated by the destruction of antioxidant compounds by the inflammatory process.
Altered antioxidant status and increased lipid peroxidation in children with cystic fibrosis. Portal-BC et al., Am-J-Clin-Nutr. 1995 Apr; 61(4): 843-7.
To determine whether an over-the-counter shampoo containing I% selenium sulfide would have sporicidal activity equal to that of a 2.5% selenium sulfide prescription lotion in the adjunctive treatment of tinea capitis infection. DESIGN: Prospective randomized nonblinded clinical trial.
Both the 2.5 % selenium sulfide and I% selenium sulfide preparations were superior to the nomedicated control shampoo in terms of the time required to eliminate shedding of viable spores. When compared with each other, there was no difference between the 2.5 % selenium sulfide and I% selenium sulfide preparations in time required to produce a negative culture.
Commercially available 1% selenium sulfide shampoo is an equally effective yet less expensive alternative sporicidal therapy in the adjunctive treatment of tinea capitis infection.
Comparison of 1% and 2.5% selenium sulfide in the treatment of tinea capitis. Givens-TG; MurrayMM & Baker-RC. Arch-Pediatr-Adolesc-Med. 1995 Jul; 149(7): 808-1 1.
Seborrheic derrnatitis is a common condition that usually appears as simple dandruff. It may affect the scalp, the central part of the face and the anterior portion of the chest, as well as flexural creases of the arms, legs and groin. It occurs most often in infants and in adults between 30 and 60 years of age.
Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome may have particularly resistant cases of seborrheic dermatitis.
Treatment is generally topical. Steroid creams, selenium, salicylic acid and coal tar preparations, and pyrithione zinc are frequently used to treat this condition.
Seborrheic dermatitis. Janniger-CK & Schwartz-RA. Am-Fam-Physician. 1995 Jul; 52(l): 149-55, 15960.
Selenium deficiency may cause liver cirrhosis and a drastic increase in liver weight, according to this study conducted on rats. Thioacetamide given in drinking water, as expected, caused a significant loss of selenium from the liver. In addition to liver cirrhosis, the depletion also caused a significant loss of selenium from the spleen, accompanied by an increase in spleen weight. The mode of action of selenium is unknown but may involve anti-oxidant defense mechanisms.
Al Bader A Abul H Hussain T Al Moosawi M Mathew TC Dashti: Selenium and liver cirrhosis, Mol-Cell-Biochem. 1998 Aug; 185(1-2): 1-6 1998
Diabetes & Selenium
The effect of increased selenium uptake on serum selenium in diabetic children was investigated with the Finnish nationwide selenium fertilization program.
The effect of the increased uptake was seen in both diabetic and in control persons. Before the autumn of 1985, diabetic patients had significantly higher serum selenium levels than their siblings or the other healthy controls. Toward the end of year 1987, this difference had disappeared.
There were no significant differences in serum selenium levels between males and females in either diabetic patients or in controls.
Serum selenium levels in diabetic children. A follow up study during selenium-enriched agricultural fertilization in Finland. Wang-WC et al., Biol-Trace Elem-Res. 1995 47(1-3): 355-64.
Supplementation with selenium may help to control oxidative status and lipid metabolism in the liver, thereby benefiting the management of complications from diabetes, according to this study conducted on diabetic rats. Diabetes increased liver thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and conjugated dienes; Se supplement completely corrected these changes. A selenium and vitamin E combination was also effective in treating diabetes complications. In diabetic rat liver, a significant drop in triglycerides and phospholipids was observed; this was modulated by Se + vitamin E supplementation. Se + vitamin E supplementation also inhibited the decrease in 18:2n-6 and the increase in 22:6n-3 observed in liver of diabetic rats, changes which reflect altered glycemic control.
Douillet C Bost M Accominotti M Borson Chazot F Ciavatti M: Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplements on tissue lipids, peroxides, and fatty acid distribution in experimental diabetes, Lipids. 1998 Apr; 33(4): 393-9 1998
Poor mineral nutrition reported in elderly people is attributed in large part to low dietary intake. Evaluation of the adequacy of mineral nutriture is limited for several minerals because of inadequate methods for assessing mineral status. In addition, there is a general lack of information about mineral nutriture and metabolism in very old people (> 85 y). Given these reservations, the 1989 recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for iron, zinc, and selenium appears adequate for elderly people, as does the estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake (ESADDI) recommendation for copper.
In contrast, the current RDAs for calcium and magnesium and the ESADDI for chromium need careful reevaluation. Current recommendations for calcium may be too low, whereas those for magnesium and chromium may be higher than necessary. For phosphorus, iodine, manganese, fluoride, and molybdenum the available data are insufficient to make a critical judgment about the appropriateness of the dietary recommendations for elderly people.
Mineral requirements of elderly people. Wood-RJ et al., Am-J-Clin-Nutr. 1995; 62(3): 493-505.
Elderly (2) [China]
Elderly (2) [China]
The spatial distribution of the elderly, (80 years +) was compared with the prevalences of Kaschin-Beck and Keshan (selenium deficiency) diseases.
The elderly in China are not normally distributed. Far fewer people of advanced age reside in those counties in which Kaschin-Beck and Keshan diseases are endemic than in unaffected counties. The possible reasons for this are thought to include elevated mortality from endemic and chronic diseases in selenium deficient areas and accelerated ageing due to excessive cellular damage caused by free radicals. These two phenomena may be related.
Longevity and selenium deficiency: evidence from the People's Republic of China. Foster-HD & Zhang-L: Sci-Total-Environ. 1995 Aug 18; 170(1-2): 133-9.
Exercise & Selenium
Changes in blood glutathione antioxidant system in response to exercise and training, and aerobic performance, were investigated. Evaluated selenium (Se) supplementation effects on these changes.
The Se supplementation caused an increase in the basal plasma GPx level (P < 0.05). There was also a correlation between the variation in V02max and that of erythrocyte GPx only in supplemented subjects. Results confirm that blood glutathione remains a sensitive marker of oxidative stress induced by exhausting submaximal exercise and that the antioxidant potential of GPx can be developed by endurance training. Se supplementation at the dose used had no effect on physical performance.
Selenium and training effects on the glutathione system and aerobic performance. Tessier-F et al., Med-Sci-Sports-Exerc. 1995 Mar; 27(3): 390-6.
Patients who suffer from gastrointestinal disease may have high risk of selenium deficiency due to decreased intestinal absorption. Eighty-six patients with Crohn's disease, 40 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 39 patients with various other gastrointestinal diseases were studied. The plasma selenium concentration was decreased in 85% of the patients receiving supplementary parenteral nutrition and in 20% of the patients receiving oral nutrition, among them in 26% of the patients with Crohn's disease. Almost all patients with ulcerative colitis had normal selenium levels. Stepwise regression analyses showed that the strongest predictors of selenium deficiency were stool mass, vitamin B12 absorption, and the length of the small-bowel resection.
Rannem T Ladefoged K Hylander E Hegnhoj J Staun M: Selenium depletion in patients with gastrointestinal diseases: are there any predictive factors?, Scand-J-Gastroenterol. 1998 Oct; 33(10): 1057-61 1998
Glucocorticoid drugs may decrease the excretion rate of selenium, thereby exerting a positive antioxidant effect in individuals of established low selenium status, according to this study conducted on asthmatics in Maltese. Prednisolone caused a significant increase in plasma selenium concentration over pretreatment values. The reason for the prednisolone-induced augmentation of plasma selenium could not be determined from this study. It is postulated that the drug may decrease the excretion rate of the element, and may thus exert a positive antioxidant effect in individuals of established low selenium status.
Fenech AG Ellul Micallef R: Selenium, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in maltese asthmatic patients: effect of glucocorticoid administration, Pulm-Pharmacol-Ther. 1998; 11(4): 301-8 1998
Evidence has accumulated suggesting that HIV-infected patients are under chronic oxidative stress. Perturbations to the antioxidant defense system, including changes in levels of ascorbic acid, tocopherols, carotenoids, selenium, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione, have been observed in various tissues of these patients.
Oxidative stress may contribute to several aspects of HIV disease pathogenesis, including viral replication, inflammatory response, decreased immune cell proliferation, loss of immune function, apoptosis, chronic weight loss, and increased sensitivity to drug toxicities.
The role of oxidative stress in HIV disease. Pace-GW; Leaf-CD. Free-Radic-Biol-Med. 1995 Oct; 19(4): 523-8.
Micronutrients (zinc, copper, selenium, vitamin A, E, and carotenoids) are essential for the integrity of host defences.
To determine the prevalence of abnon-nalities of the micronutrient levels in HIV- I -seropositive children.
Biological impairing of the micronutrient levels was observed in the non-AIDS stage without clinical sign. This information is useful in delineating eventual and well considered nutritional intervention strategies that may improve the clinical status of HIV- I -infected children and perhaps alter the course of their disease.
Micronutrient levels in HIV-1 -infected children. Periquet-Baet al., AIDS. 1995 Aug; 9(8): 887-93.
Se values were significantly lower than in normal adults, 48.3 +/- 17 micrograms/L vs 71 +/- 12 micrograms/L; Zn was moderately diminished, I +/- 0.2 mg/L vs 1.2 +/- 0.2 mg/L, whereas copper values were in the normal range. Se or Zn deficiency was found in 60 and 30 subjects, respectively. Blood Se and Zn decreases were associated in 23 patients. In addition, the patients of group one had significantly lower Se values, which were below 30 micrograms/L in 10 cases.
Relationship of trace element, immunological markers, and HIV I infection progression. Allavena-C et al., Biol-Trace-Elem-Res. 1995 Jan-Mar; 47(1-3): 133-8.
Low doses of selenium may improve immune function, according to this study conducted on Coxsackie virus B3 (CB3) infected mice. Se supplementation reduced CB3-induced mortality: at day 14 postinoculation, survival was 58% in the Se-treated group as compared to 25% in the untreated group. Whole-blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was elevated by 68% and Se content in the liver by 24%. The spleen lymphoproliferative response to T- and B-cell mitogens were increased by 9 and 43%, respectively (ns), in the Se-supplemented group. Results indicate that modest doses of Se can improve immune function, which may increase the general resistance to this viral infection.
Ilback NG Fohlman J Friman G: Effects of selenium supplementation on virus-induced inflammatory heart disease, Biol-Trace-Elem-Res. 1998 Jul; 63(1): 51-66 1998
New Zealand soils are deficient in the essential micronutrient, selenium. New Zealand infants have low selenium levels at birth and experience a further decline if fed cows milk based formula.
Supplementing cows milk formula with selenium to replicate the levels found in breast milk is nutritionally sound. Feeding from a few days of age with a formula containing 17 micrograms Se/L in infants with low selenium status at birth is sufficient to cause a rise to 80% of adult levels at 3 months of age.
Selenium status of New Zealand infants fed either a selenium supplemented or a standard formula. Darlow-BA et al., J-Paediatr-Child-Health. 1995 Aug; 31(4): 339-44.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (Finland)
Patients with JRA had slightly higher mean levels of selenium than the controls. The age of the children did not have any significant effect on the selenium level in either group. Study shows that the main factor affecting the serum level of selenitun was the dietary intake of selenium both in patients and in healthy controls.
Effect of nationwide selenium supplementation in Finland on selenium status in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. A ten-year follow-up study. Wang-WC et al., Analyst. 1995 Mar; 120(3): 955-8.
Lung Cancer & Selenium
A low intake of selenium may contribute to the risk of lung cancer, according to this study conducted on 9,101 individuals over an approximately 20-year follow up period. During follow-up until the end of 1991, 95 cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. Selenium concentrations were determined from the serum samples of the cases and 190 controls. The relative risk of lung cancer between the highest and lowest tertiles of serum selenium, adjusted for smoking, serum alpha-tocopherol, serum cholesterol, serum copper, serum orosomucoid, and body mass index, was 0.41. In accordance with the hypothesis, the findings suggest that very low selenium status may contribute to the risk of lung cancer.
Knekt P Marniemi J Teppo L Heliovaara M Aromaa A: Is low selenium status a risk factor for lung cancer?, Am-J-Epidemiol. 1998 Nov 15; 148(10): 975-82 1998
Male Infertility & Selenium
Low serum levels of selenium may be related to male infertility, according to this study conducted on 69 Scottish men who received either placebo, selenium alone or selenium plus vitamins A, C and E daily for 3 months. Plasma selenium status was determined at the beginning and end of the trial period, as was total sperm density and motility. Selenium treatment significantly increased plasma selenium concentrations and sperm motility but sperm density was unaffected. Five men (11%) achieved paternity in the treatment group, in contrast to none in the placebo group.
Scott R MacPherson A Yates RW Hussain B Dixon J: The effect of oral selenium supplementation on human sperm motility, Br-J-Urol. 1998 Jul; 82(1): 76-80 1998
Antioxidant vitamins or other antioxidants might inhibit the oxidation of low density lipoproteins into a particularly atherogenic form and preserve endothelial function.
Cross-cultural studies suggest that those living in the Mediterranean area, who consume large amounts of antioxidant vitamins, have a lower than average risk of cardiovascular disease.
The Naples group consumed more tomatoes and tomato juice, a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (from olive oil) and had a higher level of lipid antioxidant vitamin E (P = 0.005) and of beta carotene (P < 0.001) than the Bristol group. The intake of vitamin C, fresh fruit and vegetables, plasma vitamin A, serum selenium and copper levels did not differ.
Dietary habits leading to relatively low levels of oxidized lipoproteins might contribute to the lower risk of coronary artery disease in Southern Italy.
Antioxidants in the Mediterranean diet. Mancini-M et al., Can-J-Cardiol. 1995 Oct; 11 Suppl G: 105G-109G.
Food samples and ready-made meals from the traditional Italian-type diet were analysed for selenium content. The average Se content varied in food samples from 7 micrograms/kg w/w (fresh fruit) to 226 micrograms/kg w/w (fish). The highest average contents were obtained in the animal products and in legumes.
Animal derived dishes were the richest in Se, representing 78% of the estimated total daily dietary intake of Se. The average daily dietary intake of selenium for Italian people is estimated to be 50.9 +/- 29.8 micrograms Se/day when results obtained on complete meals are used, while it is 45.0 +/- 30.8 micrograms Se/day when results on foods and statistical data on consumption are used.
Evaluation of the selenium content of the traditional Italian diet. Amodio-Cocchieri-R; Arnese-A; Roncioni-A; Silvestri-G. Int-J-Food-Sci-Nutr. 1995 May; 46(2): 149-54.
Selenium (Se) in high doses has been known to cause injury to the fetus and newborn. The major difficulty in assessing the effects of selenium on human reproduction stems from the need for a suitable means of estimating maternal and fetal exposure.
Maternal plasma selenium concentrations (Se-Bm) were significantly greater than fetal concentrations (Se-Bc). Placental selenium (Se-Pl) levels were four times that of fetal levels. Variability of Se-Bc is best explained by placental concentrations. Maternal weight and ethnic origin are significantly correlated with Se-Bc. Female newborn have higher selenium levels than male newborn. Demonstrates the significance of the placenta as an indicator of fetal selenium exposure.
Inter-individual variation of selenium in maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta. Lee-AM et al., Sci-Total-Environ. 1995 Jan 10; 159(2-3): 119-27.
It has been suggested that the injury induced by reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium could result, in part, from the cytotoxic effects of oxygen free radicals. Since various trace elements are involved in several of the reactions leading to free radical production, we have measured plasma levels of copper, zinc, selenium, and iron:
A decrease in selenium concentration was observed
This study underlined the time-course evolution of plasma trace element levels in the followup of patients who have been subjected to thrombolysis following a MI and the potential prognostic implication of such variations.
Time-course of changes in plasma levels of trace elements after thrombolysis during the acute phase of myocardial infarction in humans. Pucheu-S; Coudray-C; Vanzetto-G; Favier-A; Machecourt-J; de-Leiris-J. Biol-Trace-Elem-Res. 1995 Jan-Mar; 47(1-3): 171-82.
Neural tube defect
Neural tube defect
Few data are presented in the literature about selenium (Se) in human fetal development
Studiedthe relationship between maternal and neonatal Se status and neural tube defects (NTDs).
Mean maternal serum and hair Se concentrations in the NTD group were significantly lower than those of the control healthy mothers. A significant decrease in concentrations of Se in serum and hair was observed in newborns with a NTD (26.0 +/- 1.55 ng/mL, 181 +/- 3.71 ng/g, respectively) compared with healthy newborns (32.6 +/- 1.70 ng/mL, 204 +/- 4.43 ng/g, respectively).
Maternal Se deficiency during pregnancy was thought to be one of the factors responsible for NTDs. However, the lowered serum and hair Se concentrations may be secondary manifestations of an abnormal pregnancy and did not contribute to its production. More studies are needed.
Low levels of selenium in mothers and their newborns in pregnancies with a neural tube defect. Guvenc-H; Karatas-F; Guvenc-M; Kunc-S; Aygun-AD; Bektas-S. Pediatrics. 1995 Jun; 95(6): 879-82.
Degenerative diseases of the central nervous system are significant causes of mortality among elderly people in industrialized countries. For the most part, the causes of these diseases are unknown.
Look in particular at the effect of exposure to toxins as well as the effect that deficiencies of elements such as calcium and selenium could have on the development of these neurological diseases. Also consider the possible protectionist effect of some variables on the development of certain neurological diseases.
Neurodegenerative diseases and risk factors: a literature review. Emard-JF; Thouez-JP; Gauvreau-D. Soc-Sci-Med. 1995 Mar; 40(6): 847-58.
An improvement in the prognosis of acute pancreatitis can be achieved if antioxidative selenium therapy with sodium selenite is introduced in time. In rare cases total necroses and complications in organs only occurred in those patients who were admitted to this therapy too late.
[Decreasing mortality in acute pancreatitis with sodium selenite. Clinical results of 4 years antioxidant therapy] Kuklinski-B; Zimmermann-T; Schweder-R. Med-Klin. 1995 Jan 15; 90 Suppl 1: 36-41.
Some of the precise elements in parenteral nutrition have been elucidated. With these changes, this form of nutrition has provided the essential calories and trace elements necessary for very-low-birthweight infants, as well as infants who have required surgery.
It is anticipated that even more adjustments to parenteral nutrition will be made, in order to provide optimal caloric vitamin, and trace element intake and establish the optimal manner in which these are administered.
Recent advances in parenteral nutrition. Lipsky-CL & Spear-ML. Clin-Perinatol. 1995 Mar; 22(1): 141-55.
Type I 5'-deiodinase was recently characterized as a selenocysteine-containing enzyme in humans and other mammals.
It had previously only been reported in Central Africa, where combined severe iodine and Se deficiency occurs. A group of phenylketonuria subjects with a low selenium status but a normal iodine intake, were supplemented with selenium to investigate their thyroid hormone metabolism.
After 3 wk of selenium supplementation (1 microgram/kg/d), both the concentrations of the prohormone thyroxine (T4) and the metabolic inactive reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) decreased significantly. Clinically, the phenylketonuria subjects remained euthyroid before and after selenium supplementation. The individual changes of plasma Se and glutathione peroxidase activity were closely associated with individual changes of plasma T4 and rT3.
Effects of selenium supplementation on thyroid hormone metabolism in phenylketonuria subjects on a phenylalanine restricted diet. Calomme-M; Vanderpas-J; Francois-B; Van-Caillie-Bertrand-M; Vanovervelt-N; Van-Hoorebeke-C; Vanden-Berghe-D. Biol-Trace-Elem-Res. 1995 Jan-Mar; 47(1-3): 349-53.
Placenta & Selenium
Selenium not only has an important role in controlling lipid hydroperoxides through glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, but also can produce oxidative stress through exposure to selenite.
To determine if different selenium compounds, selenite, selenate, and ebselen, can influence the human term placental production
Results indicate that selenite, but not selenate or ebselen, can directly affect the human placenta, which may increase vasoconstriction and blood coagulation.
The effect of selenium compounds (selenite, selenate, ebselen) on the production of thromboxane and prostacyclin by the human term placenta in vitro. Eisenmann-CJ; Miller-RK. Toxicol-Appl-Pharmacol. 1995 Nov; 135(1): 18-24.
Ten trace elements that are nutritionally essential include: zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt, fluoride, iodine, and iron. Reviews the biochemistry of these trace elements, describes clinical deficiency states, and provides a rationale for recommended enteral and parenteral intakes for preterm infants.
Trace elements in nutrition for premature infants. Zlotkin-SH; Atkinson-S; Lockitch-G. Clin-Perinatol. 1995 Mar; 22(1): 223-40.
Supplementation with selenium may decrease the risk of prostate cancer, according to this study conducted on 974 men during a 10-year follow-up period. Selenium treatment was associated with a significant (63%) reduction in the secondary endpoint of prostate cancer incidence during 1983-93. There were significant health benefits also for the other secondary endpoints of total cancer mortality, and the incidence of total, lung and colorectal cancer. There was no significant change in incidence for the primary endpoints of basal and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
Clark LC Dalkin B Krongrad A Combs GF Jr Turnbull BW Slate EH Witherington R Herlong JH Janosko E Carpenter D Borosso C Falk S Rounder J: Decreased incidence of prostate cancer with selenium supplementation: results of a double-blind cancer prevention trial, Br-J-Urol. 1998 May; 81(5): 730-4 1998
Analysed plasma selenium and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes
Mean plasma selenium level was 0.99 (range 0.27-1.47) and for the corresponding 121 controls 1.08 (range 0.52-1.50) mumol/l, a significant difference.
Levels of selenium in plasma and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes in patients with prostate cancer or benign hyperplasia. Hardell-L; Degerman-A; Tomic-R; Marklund-SL; Bergfors-M. Eur-J-Cancer-Prev. 1995 Feb; 4(1): 91-5.
Staple foods [Germany (FRG)]
Staple foods [Germany (FRG)]
The effects of food processing on some cereal and potato products are discussed with respect to the status of 11 trace elements. The influences of milling, bread making and cooking of potatoes on the contents of trace elements are demonstrated.
Average intake levels of undesired elements such as cadmium and lead, as well as of essential elements such as calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium and zinc via consumption of cereal and potato products are calculated.
The status of trace elements in staple foods. II. Some effects of cereal and potato processing. Bruggemann-J; Kumpulainen-J. Z-Lebensm-Unters-Forsch. 1995 Jul; 201(1): 7-11.
Toxicity & Selenium
Six elements have been evaluated: selenium, iron, iodine, chromium, copper and magnesium and small safety margins between potentially deleterious and beneficial intakes were revealed. The risk evaluation, which will be published in early 1995, will be used as a background document in the revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations.
A Nordic project:risk evaluation of essential trace elements: essential versus toxic levels of intake. Oskarsson-A; Sandstrom-B. Analyst. 1995 Mar; 120(3): 911-2.
Uremia & Selenium
The importance of selenium as an essential trace element for man is being increasingly recognized:
Selenium deficiency has been associated with: anemia, cardiovascular disease, enhanced cancer risk, hair and nail changes, immune system skeletal myopathy and thyroid metabolism.
These symptoms are frequently present in chronic uremic patients. Nevertheless, the prevalence and significance of selenium deficiency in the uremic syndrome is still not clearly defined.
Selenium in uremia (Review). Bonomini-M; Albertazzi-A. Artif-Organs. 1995 May; 19(5): 443-8.
Antioxidants - Free radicals
Antioxidants - Free radicals
Most of the degenerative diseases that afflict humanity have their origin in deleterious free radical reactions, including: asthma atherosclerosis, cancer, eye disease, diabetes, inflammatory joint disease and senile dementia.
Most free radical damage to cells involves oxygen free radicals or, more generally, activated oxygen species (AOS) which include non-radical species such as singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide as well as free radicals. The AOS can damage genetic material, cause lipid peroxidation in cell membranes, and inactivate membrane-bound enzymes.
Humans have antioxidant defences against AOS (antioxidants or free radical scavengers): including: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), beta-carotene, coenzyme Q IO, enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase, and trace elements including selenium and zinc.
The eye has intense AOS activity, requiring high levels of antioxidants to protect its unsaturated fatty acids.
The role of free radicals in disease. Florence-TM. Aust-N-Z-J-Ophthalmol. 1995 Feb; 23(l): 3-7.
Birth weight (1)
Birth weight (1) [New Zealand]
To examine the relationship between plasma and erythrocyte selenium and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in premature infants and outcome measures.
Initial infant plasma selenium and GPx levels were about two thirds of maternal levels and fell a further 30% in 28 days. 28-day plasma selenium was significantly associated with the log of total days of oxygen requirement, each drop of 0. I mumol/L in 28-day selenium being associated with a 5 8% increase in days of oxygen dependency.
This study demonstrates that low plasma selenium levels are significantly associated with an increased respiratory morbidity.
The relationship of selenium status to respiratory outcome in the very low birth weight infant. Darlow-BA et al., Pediatrics. 1995 Aug; 96(2 Pt 1): ' ) 14-9.
Impaired Bone Metabolism
Impaired Bone Metabolism
Selenium deficiency may be responsible for detrimental effects on bone metabolism and subsequent overall impaired growth, according to this study on male second-generation selenium-deficient rats. Recorded weight and tail lengths of selenium-deficient rats were significantly lower than rats given selenium, and selenium deficiency was also associated with reduced erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, plasma selenium concentration, pituitary growth hormone, plasma insulin-like growth factor, plasma osteocalcin, and urinary deoxypyridoline. Selenium-deficient rats also displayed excess urinary excretion of calcium, 23% reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur, 21% reduction in BMD of the tibia, and a 43% reduction in trabecular bone volume of the femoral metaphysis.
Moreno-Reyes R, Egrise D, Neve J, Pasteels JL, Schoutens A: Selenium deficiency-induced growth retardation is associated with an impaired bone metabolism and osteopenia, J Bone Miner Res 2001 Aug;16(8):1556-63
Sperm Motility & Selenium
High dietetic levels of selenium may cause an increased fraction of immotile sperm in adult men, according to this randomized, controlled, blinded study. Eleven healthy male adults were separated into two groups, and one group received a high selenium diet while the other received a low selenium diet. Both diet groups received 47 micrograms selenium per day for the first 21 days, followed by 13 micrograms per day for the low selenium group and 297 micrograms per day for the high selenium group for 99 days. These doses caused significant changes in the blood and semen selenium concentrations of the subjects.
In the high-selenium group, seminal plasma selenium concentrations increased by 50% while it decreased by 40% in the low selenium group. By week 13 of the experiment, the number of motile sperm in the high-selenium group had decreased by 32%; at the end of the experiment, the high-selenium group had suffered an 18% overall decrease in motile sperm. Since plasma selenium levels and androgen levels remained the same, it was suggested by the researchers that the notable change in thyroid-stimulating hormone and serum triiodothyronine in high-selenium subjects, which indicates altered thyroid hormone metabolism, may be responsible for the decrease in sperm motility. The decreased motility does not necessarily imply decreased fertility, however, so further studies are warranted.
Hawkes WC, Turek PJ: Effects of dietary selenium on sperm motility in healthy men, J Androl 2001 Sep-Oct,22(5):764-72
Prostate Cancer Risk
Prostate Cancer Risk
Supplemental selenium may decrease the risk of prostate cancer in older men, according to this study. Researchers measured the plasma selenium concentrations of 148 men taking part in an aging study before any were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Later on, they compared the selenium levels in the men who developed cancer to those who remained healthy. It was found that men eventually diagnosed with cancer showed lower selenium levels at the time of measurement than those who remained healthy. This correlation still remained after correcting for years before diagnosis, body mass index, and smoking and alcohol use history. It was also discovered that selenium levels decreased with age. Since low plasma selenium was associated with a 4-5 fold increase in prostate cancer risk, researchers suggest that selenium supplementation, especially in older men, may decrease the risk for developing prostate cancer.
Brooks JD: Plasma selenium level before diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer development, J Urol 2001 Dec;166(6):2034-8
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