Text Size

Site Search powered by Ajax

Specialty Nutrients

Specialty Nutrients

Acerola

DESCRIPTION
Acerola, also known as the West Indian Cherry and Barbados Cherry, grows to a height of about 3 meters. As the fruit matures, it passes from green to yellow, and finally to the appearance of the European cherry. The fruit is rich in Vitamin C.


INDICATIONS
Acerola is used primarily for its Vitamin C content and free-radical scavenging abilities. Acerola has been used as a remedy against flus and colds, pulmonary disturbances, liver ailments and irregularities with the gall bladder. Used in heavy doses it has beneficial effects on viral hepatitis and varicella, as well as poliomyelitis. Acerola is rich in anti-oxidant activity, which may be due in part to its high Vitamin C content.


CHARACTERISTICS
Acerola is rich in Vitamin C as well as carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, proteins, and mineral salts, principally iron, calcium, and phosphorus.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No known toxicity.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
1-5 gms/day


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Product:dry extract of acerola fruit
Typestandard
Qualityfiber free
Volumetric fluidity500-700 g/l
Coloryellowish to orange (According to the ripening of the fruit)
Tasteacid, characteristic
Solubility (5 g/20 ml water)Flocculent mixture
Loss on drying:5% max
pH (10% solution)2.5-3.5
Acidity (in citric acid)8-12%
Vitamin C26.5 %



Microbiological Specifications (Pharm. Acta. Helv. 51(3):33-40. 1976)

Gram negativesabsent
Escherichia coliabsent
Staphylococcus aureauabsent
Pseudomonas aeruginosaabsent
Salmonella sp.absent

Beta Carotene

DESCRIPTION
Beta Carotene (or pro Vitamin A) is the compound which colors vegetables yellow or orange. Beta Carotene is purified from carrots, Dunelliala salina algae, and other sources.


INDICATIONS
Atherosclerosis, Diabetes, Cataracts, and many other chronic degenerative diseases have been linked to free-radical damage. Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have shown that people who consume high quantities of Beta Carotene have a lowered incidence of cancer and other chronic diseases.


BIOCHEMISTRY
Beta Carotene (or pro Vitamin A) is the compound which colors vegetables yellow or orange. Beta Carotene, one of over 400 identified carotenes, protects plants from oxidative damage during photosynthesis. Beta Carotene consists of two molecules of Vitamin A linked to each other. The body converts Beta Carotene into Vitamin A as needed. This conversion is inhibited in diabetics.

PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY
Beta Carotene acts as an anti-oxidant, trapping and neutralizing singlet oxygen molecules and other free-radicals, which can damage the body's cellular membranes, lipids, proteins, and vitamins. In addition, Beta Carotene enhances the immune system by stimulating the activity of interferon.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No toxicity known. The body only uses Beta Carotene as needed. Excess consumption will lead to a harmless yellowish/orange tint to the skin.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
15-45 mg of Beta Carotene/day (25,000-75,000 IU)


SAMPLE ANALYSIS (OF A SOLVENT-EXTRACTED CARROT OIL SOURCE)

Appearanceorange viscous oil
Colororange in concentrated form, yellow in diluted form
Flavorvirtually none
Provitamin A (B-Carotene)min. 30 % w/w 480,000 IU/g
Solubilityreadily soluble in oil
Diluentsoybean oil
Preservative allowedmixed tocopherols
Hexane residual25 ppm maximum
Storagein a cool place protected from light




SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES
Burton, G. and Ingold, K. (1984) Beta Carotene: an unusual type of lipid antioxidant. Science 224: 569-73.

Alexander, M, Newmark, H and Miler, R. (1985) Oral Beta Carotene can increase the number of OKT4+ cells in human blood. Immunology Letters 9: 221-4.

Black Currant Seed Oil

DESCRIPTION
Black Currant Seed Oil

INDICATIONS
Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of GLA for a wide variety of disorders, including Atherosclerosis, Diabetes Mellitus, Eczema, Multiple Sclerosis, and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS).


BIOCHEMISTRY
Black Currant Seed Oil is a rich source of gamma linolenic acid (GLA), an Omega-6 essential fatty acid. GLA is normally synthesized in the liver from dietary linoleic acid (LA). This reaction, however, is frequently deficient in people because of interference by disease, stress, sugar, saturated fats, and trans-fatty acids (e.g. margarine). In addition, the conversion requires Vitamins B-3, B-6, and C, as well as the minerals magnesium, zinc, and copper. Any deficiencies of these nutrients may affect the conversion.


PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY
GLA is part of the Omega 6 series of essential fatty acids and is the critical precursor to series 1 prostaglandins and other hormones in the body. The PGE1 series prostaglandins, along with the PGE3 series, protect the body against the deleterious effects of PGE2 series prostaglandins, such as high blood pressure, sticky platelets, inflammation, water retention, and lowered immune function. The series 2 prostaglandins are made from arachidonic acid, which is derived from consumption of animal products.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No known toxicity is associated with Black Currant Seed Oil. Excess consumption can result in oily skin, an indication to decrease dosage.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE

100-1000 mg/day GLA


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Specifications:clear transparent edible oil 5 Oval Softgel
Colorlight yellow



Fatty Acid CompositionSTANDARDACTUAL
Palmitic(16:0)8-9 %22 mg
Palmitoleic0.2-0.6%
Stearic(18:0)1.5-2%6 mg
Oleic (18:1)12-13 %33 mg
Linoleic (18:2)36-39 %124 mg
Alpha linolenic(18:3, ALA)16-17 %30 mg
Gamma linolenic (18:3,GLA)18-20 %47 mg
Other acids8 mg
Water/ml0.90-0.93
Acid Value0.70-0.95 %0.7%
Peroxide Value1.00-3.50 mEq/kg0.4 mEq/kg




SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES

Chapkin, R. and Carmichael, S. (1990) Effect of Dietary Black Currant Seed Oil on Macrophage Subclasses of Choline and Ethanolamine Glycerophospho Lipids. J. Nutr.

Miller, C. and Zaboh, V. (1988) Gamma-Linolenic Acid-enriched diet alters cutaneous eicosanoids. Bioch and Biophy Res. Comm. Aug. 15:967-974.

Miller, C. et al. (1990) Oxidative metabolism of Dihomo-g-linolenic acid by guinea pig epidermis: Evidence of anti-inflammatory products. Prosta. 35(6).

Calcium Hydroxyl Apatite

DESCRIPTION
Calcium hydroxyl apatite is a highly bioavailable and absorbable form of calcium. Calcium hydroxyl apatite is preferrably derived from organically-raised, free-range beef.


PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY
One of the major functions of calcium is the formation of bone and teeth, which occurs continuously throughout life. A deficiency of calcium and magnesium can lead to osteoporosis, or porous bones very susceptible to fractures. Calcium is also important in cardiovascular function. Calcium helps to regulate the heartbeat and maintain the proper pH in blood. Calcium is also important for muscle growth, muscle contraction, and nerve transmission. Moderate cases of calcium deficiency can lead to cramps, joint pains, heart palpitations, slow pulse rates, tooth decay, insomnia, impaired growth, and excessive irritability of nerves and muscles. Calcium acts as a natural tranquilizer and tends to help calm the nerves.


BIOCHEMISTRY
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, found mainly in the bones and teeth. Critical biochemical functions such as blood clotting, nerve and muscle stimulation, immune cell activation, and parathyroid hormone function, however, require free calcium which involves only 1% of the body's calcium supply. Bone is a living tissue composed of a collagen matrix with mineral salts of phosphates of calcium. The calcium is mainly present in the form of hydroxyapatite.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
If calcium intakes are high, magnesium intake also needs to be high to avoid calcium accumulation in muscles, heart, and kidneys, resulting in kidney stones, from relative magnesium deficiency.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
800-1200 mg calcium/day.


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Moisture2.6% w/w
Fat4.5% w/w
Arsenicless then 0.4 ppm
Leadless than 1.3 ppm
Mercury0.01 ppm
Calcium25.6% w/w
Phosphorus14.3% w/w
Calcium Hydroxyl Apatite64% + - 3% w/w
Microbiological assay:
Total Aerobic Count500 /g
Coliformsnot detected
S. Aureusnot detected
C. Perfringensnot detected
Samonellaabsent in 25 g




SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES
Dunne, L. (1990) Nutriton Almanac. McGraw-Hill Publ. Co., NY.

Ganong, W. (1973) Review of Medical Physiology. Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, CA.

Colostrum

DESCRIPTION
Colostrum is a pure, natural product, obtained by collecting and drying (under strict government regulated protocols) the milk obtained within the first 48 hours after birth of a calf (within the first 6 hours, or at least the first 24 hours, is preferable). Colostrum is made during the last two months of pregnancy, during which time the cow stops lactating and initiates the biochemical processes which result in the super concentrated nectar for the new animal to which it is about to give birth. The cow produces more than required, and it is this overflow that is used.
Note: Colostrum has many more components than whey concentrate, which is often sold as colostral whey - a misnomer.


INDICATIONS
To supplement the diet and be assured of receiving the factors provided by Colostrum.


BIOCHEMISTRY & PHYSIOLOGY
Colostrum is rich in protein, specifically immune proteins classed as immunoglobulins (IGG, IGA IGM), which provide the newborn, or those using colostrum, with these basic components of the immune system. In the case of the newborn, their immune system is not yet fully functioning and colostrum sourced antibodies are essentially required to "kick start" their immune systems to ward off and defend against infections/antigens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc.). The implication for individuals experiencing the effects of a compromised immune system is that colostrum would be a logical whole food supplement. Additionally, there are many vitamins in high concentrations along with rich sources of minerals in easy to assimilate forms. Recent research has demonstrated the existence of TGF-1 (insulin like growth factor) which is of interest to the atheletic and body-building field. Colostrum also contains a small molecular weight moiety called transfer factor (immune inducer) which is a messenger to the immune system preparing it for defense against specific antigens. This can be a very promising way to offer health benefits through an oral supplement, as it is small enough to be absorbed through the digestive system. The "ProBiotic" functions of colostrum are well researched, and effectivenesss against various G.I. problems (diarrhea, etc.) is well established.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No known toxicity.


DIRECTIONS
500 mg. to 1,000 mg. daily to establish desired levels, and the same amount twice weekly for maintenance. Supplementation can be in a protein powder drink, capsule, tablet, or chewable tablet, depending on preference. The probiotic functions can be combined with synergistic organisms such as bifidus, for a dual approach to normalizing the bowel environment.


SAMPLE ANALYSISAs IsDry Matter
Moisture2.39%
Total Protein63.21%64.75%
Calc. Digestible Protein49.72%50.94%
Crude Fat14.76%15.12%
Acid Detergent Fiber0.66%0.67%
Ash4.85%4.97%
Nitrogen free extract14.47%14.82%
Total Digestible Nutrients111.47%114.20%
Digestible energy (M cal/lb.)2.23%2.28%
Metabolizable energy(M cal/lb.)2.05%2.10%
NE (lactation) (M cal/lb.)1.19%1.22%
NE (maintenance) (M cal/lb.)1.54%1.58%
NE (gain) (M cal/lb.)0.82%0.84%
pH5.4
Nitrate as KNO30.000.00


Fish Marine Lipids

DESCRIPTION
Fish marine lipids is a clear edible fish oil (triglyceride) produced from the body of the fish, rather than the liver.


INDICATIONS
Numerous studies have shown that Omega 3 fatty acids help lower cholesterol and blood triglycerides, and help prevent clots in arteries which may result in strokes, heart attacks and thromboses.


BIOCHEMISTRY
Fish lipids provide an ideal and natural source of the essential Omega-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid), as well as preformed EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid), DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid), and DPA (Docosapentaenoic acid). Omega-3 fatty acids from vegetable sources such as flax seed oil still need to be converted to EPA and DHA.


PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY
EPA is the precursor to the series 3 prostaglandins (PGE 3), which are critical hormones regulating cell activities. The PGE 3 series prostaglandins, along with the PGE 1 series prostaglandins, protect the body against the deleterious effects of PGE 2 series prostaglandins, such as high blood pressure, sticky platelets, inflammation, water retention, and lowered immune function. The series 2 prostaglandins are made from arachidonic acid, which is derived from consumption of animal products. DHA is important for the normal functioning of the brain, nerves, adrenal gland, and sperm, as well as for proper vision and hearing.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
None known.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
150-450 mg EPA/day; 30-90 mg DHA/day; (1-3 capsules/day).


SAMPLE ANALYSIS: Marine Lipids
Description: Clear, edible triglyceride, fish oil
EPA18%
DHA12%
Spec. Gr. at 20 oC0.925
Regr. Index at 20 oC1.48
Color Gardner3/5
Acid Value0.2
Iodine Value188
Unsap Matter1.85
Peroxide Value<5.0 MeQ/g
Free Fatty Acid<1.0 %
Mercury<0.02 PPM
Selenium<0.02 PPM
Lead<0.01 PPM
Vitamin E content0.8-1.0 %
Cholesterolless than 0.01 %




SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES
Pritchard, G. et al. (1989) Melanoma growth in vivo is inhibited by dietary intake of primrose oil and fish oil. (abstract) Br J Surg. 75(6):612.3.

Germanium

DESCRIPTION
100% pure bis beta carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide (also known as Ge-132, and as organic germanium) is an oxygen-rich organic form of the semi-conducting trace mineral germanium. Organic germanium traces have been found in health foods such as Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and appear to be associated with free radical scavenging and improved oxygen utilization.


INDICATIONS
Medical research studies have indicated Ge-132 has immunomodulating properties and may also function as a free-radical scavenger. Germanium appears to be a natural regulator of homeostasis.


PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY
Ge-132 has been found in high quantities in garlic, Siberian ginseng and other medicinal plants. Medical research conducted in Japan has found Ge-132 can induce gamma-interferon and activate macrophages and natural killer cells. Other results were reported showing beneficial effects on malignancies and rheumatoid arthritis.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
Found to be non-toxic even at high oral doses. 100% pure bis beta carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide appears to be safe. However, it is easily contaminated with highly toxic germanium dioxide, especially if used as the source material for manufacture. Each batch must be assayed for composition and purity, and warranted free of potentially toxic germanium dioxide and acrilonitrile. Subjecting at least selected batches to the highly sensitive magnetic resonance imaging technique can add a greater measure of assurance of safety. Germanium dioxide has been associated with kidney failures.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
10 to 100 mg/day


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Appearancewhite crystalline, free flowing powder
Solubility in waterpasses
Infrared spectrumconforms
Loss on drying.80%
Titration100.0%
Germanium42.58%
pH2.4
Lead< .1 ppm
Mercury< .1 ppm
Cadmium< .1 ppm
Nitrogen< .1 ppm
NMR Spectrumconforms




SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES

Tsutui, M. et al. (1976) Crystal structure of carboxygermanium sesquioxide. J. Am. Che. Soc. 98:8287-8289.

Mizushima, Y. et al. (1980) Restoration of impaired immunoresponse by germanium. Int. Arch. Allergy. Appl. Immunol. 63:338-339.

Satoh, H. and Iwaguchi, T. (1979) Antitumor activity of new novel organogermanium compound, Ge-132. Cancer Chemother. 6:79-83.

Kidd, P. (1987) Ge-132: Research breakthrough from the Orient. Health Foods Business/July: 48B-48N.)

Green Lipped Mussel

DESCRIPTION
Green Lipped Mussels are harvested from unpolluted New Zealand sea waters and processed in their pure, natural and raw state, producing high quality material uncontaminated by bacteria, toxins, or heavy metals. The mussels are freeze dried to protect the mucopolysaccharides and superoxide dismutase enzymes.


INDICATIONS
Inflammatory diseases are characterized by an excess of free radicals with their associated damage, and by changes in mucopolysaccharide content in the structural components of the body, such as the joints, skin, bones, and the intestinal endothelium. A clinical trial showed Green Lipped Mussels can be an effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.


BIOCHEMISTRY
Green Lipped Mussels are a highly nutritious source of proteins, vitamins, and trace minerals. In addition, green lipped mussels are an important source of mucopolysaccharides and the free-radical scavenging enzyme, superoxide dismutase, or SOD.


PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY
Mucopolysaccharides (MPs) are critical components of the body, maintaining its structural integrity. The content of MPS changes in the body when inflammatory diseases are present such as rheumatoid and osteoarthritis, bursitis, gastritis, colitis, eczema, and emphysema. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important anti-oxidant enzyme which detoxifies superoxides and other free radicals which can damage tissues and membranes.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No known toxicity is associated with the consumption of Green Lipped Mussels.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
500-1500 mg/day; 1-3 capsules/day


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Super Oxide Dismutase1238 units / g
Protein55%
Carbohydrates20%
Ash19%
Fat03%
Moisture03%
Chloride4.7%
Sodium3.5%
Magnesium2.1%
Calcium0.93%
Sulfur0.92%
Phosphorous0.82%
Potassium0.81%
Iron0.076%
Zinc0.007%
Manganese17.0 ppm
Iodine10.0
Chromium8.5%
Nickel7.0%
Copper6.5%
Cobalt6.0%
Fluoride3.8%
Selenium1.0%
Glutamic Acid9.31%
Aspartic Acid6.53%
Glycine5.28%
Leucine4.41%
Lysine4.32%
Alanine3.23%
Serine2.89%
Valine2.82%
Isoleucine2.76%
Threonine2.75%
Proline2.39%
Phenylalanine2.18%
Tyrosine1.82%



SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES

Facts and Comparisons. The Lawrence Review of Natural Products. Apr, 1997.

Gibson, R. et al. (1980) Perna canaliculus in the treatment of arthritis. Practitioner. 224(1347): 955-960.

Miller, T et al., NZMJ, 1984, 97(757):355-357.

Morrison, L. et al. (1965) Growth stimulating effects of acid mucopolysaccharides. Proc Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 118:770-2.

Prudden, J.F. et al. (1970) The discovery of a potent pure chemical wound healing accelerator. Amer J. Surg. 119:560.

Medium Chain Triglycerides

DESCRIPTION
Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) is a highly purified triglyceride oil from the same supply used to feed infants with fat malabsorption syndrome (cystic fibrosis) and to supply long-term intravenous solutions.


INDICATIONS
MCT is used for active lifestyles, high performance athletes, and weight loss. It can be substituted for traditional cooking fats in baked goods, salad dressings, and marinades.


PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY
MCT oil is quickly absorbed and available as an energy source to all organs and muscles. It "burns" better than long-chain triglycerides, and is less likely to be converted into fat stores. Top athletes have used MCT to increase their performance, and for a rapidly available yet sustained energy supply.


BIOCHEMISTRY
The MCT oil contains a blend of medium length fatty acid chains with 8, 10, and 12 carbons randomly attached to the glycerol moiety. It is related to Caprylic Acid.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No known toxicity. MCT oil can cause gastrointestinal cramping and diarrhea if consumed initially in large doses. This may be due to triggering a sudden Candida albicans die-off. Consult your physician if you have heart disease, liver disease, atherosclerosis, or hypercholesterolemia. Not for children.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
Incorporate MCT oil slowly into the diet. Start with a half teaspoon or one capsule after a meal, and work up gradually, backing off if there is digestive upset. Some athletes use as much as 30 to 50 grams per day; this amount is for multi-hour, intense, daily workouts, which ensure that it is used for fuel, not converted to fat or excreted.


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

AppearanceCrystal Clear Liquid
APHA Color60
Lovivond Color.2 R1Y
Hydroxyl Number5.7
Saponification No.340.4
BLC Results
Caproci3.5
Caprylic65.4
Capric30.8
Lauric & Higher0.3%
Quality Characteristics
Acid ValueLess than 1
Peroxide ValueLess than 1
UnsaponifiablesLess than 0.5%
PesticidesNot detected
HerbicidesNot detected
Trans Fatty AcidsNot detected

N. N-Dimethylglycine

DESCRIPTION
N. N-Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a non-fuel nutrient which enhances physical performance in many individuals, and can help to prevent or assist in treating a variety of health conditions. Found in small concentrations in plants (especially cereal grains, nuts, seeds) and animals, DMG is a component of our diet and metabolism. However, the DMG in food is often destroyed or removed as a result of current food processing techniques.


INDICATIONS
DMG is especially useful in situations involving physical stress, such as athletics, where optimal physical performance is important. In addition, DMG has applications for individuals under mental and emotional stress, and as a preventive and possible treatment agent for some conditions (such as infections) which are influenced by the competence of the immune system.


BIOCHEMISTRY
DMG is a tertiary amino acid which studies have shown improves cellular oxygen utilization, reduces lactic acid buildup, and enhances the immune system. As a metabolic enhancer, DMG increases oxygen utilization, especially when engaged in strenuous exercise. DMG also reduces the muscle-fatiguing effects of strenuous activity and reduces the recovery period. Studies indicate DMG enhances both humoral (antibody-related) and cellular immune responses in humans. These features of DMG make it effective in coping with stress, and indicate it as a preventive and possible treatment agent in addressing intracellular infections, certain tumors and some other conditions which are influenced significantly by immune system competence.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
DMG is considered to be non-toxic and there are no known contraindications.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
20 mg per kg of body weight
Once a day


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

TESTSSPECIFICATIONSRESULTS
DescriptionWhite crystalline powder; odourlessComplies
IdentificationIR: Similar to standard (KBr)Positive
SolubilitySoluble in water (10%)Complies
Melting Point190 o - 194 o Centigrade190-192 o C.
MoistureMax. 1.0 % (KF)0.13 %
Sulphated AshMax. 0.1 %0.01 %
Heavy MetalsMax. 20 ppm< 20 ppm
Impurities (TLC)Total: Max. 1.0 %< 1.0 %
HCl Content25.6 % - 26.4 %26.0 %
Assay98.0 % - 101.0 % (dried subst.)100.8 %
Shelf Life5 Years from date of manufactureN/A




SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES
Graber, C. et al. (1981) Immunomodulating Properties of Dimethylglycine in Humans. Jour. of Infect. Dis. 143(1): 101-104

Levine, S. et al. (1982) Effect of a Nutritional Supplement containing N.N-Dimethylglycine (DMG) on the Racing Standardbred. Equine Practice 4(3).

Pandey, J. et al. (1979) Association between immunoglobulin allotypes and immune response to Haemophilus influenza and meningoccus polysaccharides. Lancet 1: 190-192.

Octacosanol

DESCRIPTION
Octacosanol is the principle sterol of wheat germ oil, responsible for many of the reported beneficial effects. Octacosanol is manufactured from the unsaponifiable fraction of wheat germ oil.


INDICATIONS
Octacosanol has been used to increase stamina and improve strength and reaction time in top athletes.


PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY
Octacosanol is a 28-carbon waxy alcohol, related to Vitamin E. Octacosanol has been reported to have beneficial effects on the physiological response to exercise. Octacosanol has also been demonstrated to improve strength, stamina, and reaction time. Wheat germ, the usual source of octacosanol, also contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and important B vitamins.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No known toxicity.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
2-10 mg/day octacosanol


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

SpecificationsOctacosanol
Appearancegranular powder
Colorbuff-colored
MoistureNMT 1.5 %
Aerobic Plate countNMT 10,000/g
SalmonellaNegative
E. coli< 0.3/g



ANALYSIS

Octacosanol20 mg/gm
Triacontanol25.4 mg/gm
Tetracosanol10 mg/gm
Hexacosanol5 mg/gm
Carbohydrate36.04 %
Fat0.54 %
Fiber3.1 %
Protein18.6 %



Amino Acid content per 100 grams of pure protein:

Arginine 3.7 mg
Cystine 1.1 mg
Histidine1.1 mg
Isoleucine3.1 mg
Leucine5.6 mg
Lysine3.9 mg
Methionine1.3 mg
Phenylalanine3.2 mg
Threonine3.5 mg
Tryptophane0.91 mg
Valine4.8 mg



Vitamin values per 100 gms

Thiamin1.23 mg
Riboflavin0.42 mg
Niacin5.28 mg
Vitamin B60.96 mg
Pantothenic0.93 mg
Choline118.8 mg
Inositol309.6 mg

Potassium Glycerophosphate

DESCRIPTION
Potassium Glycerophosphate is produced by the painstaking and exacting process of phosphorylating potassium, resulting in potassium organically bound to glycerophosphate. Potassium Glycerophosphate is easily added to other liquids and is ideal for herbal tonics. The glycerol part helps act as a natural solvent whenever herbal complexes are dissolved, helping prevent their precipitation out of solution.


INDICATIONS
Potassium Glycerophosphate is an easily absorbed, bioavailable, potassium supplement. Currently used in some of the most popular 'energy' tonics, it supplies potassium in a form which easily penetrates cells walls. The glycerol portion has natural humectant (moisturizing) properties, which makes the product ideal for addition to baked goods, cookies, food bars, etc., for a moist texture. The potassium content helps give a non-sodium salty taste with potassium enrichment. Potassium phosphate is a laxative while potassium glycerophosphate is not.


PHYSIOLOGY
Potassium is vital for health, energy, and intelligence. The brain and nervous system cannot function properly without sufficient potassium stores. Potassium Glycerophosphate is one of the most absorbable and bioavailable forms of potassium available.


BIOCHEMISTY
Potassium Glycerophosphate is a di-potassium compound (C3H7O6PK2-3H20) supplied as a 75% water solution. Alpha-glycerophosphate is an important intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism, in the energy-producing mitochondria.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No known toxicity.


SAMPLE ANALYSIS        
IDENTIFICATION SPECIFICATIONS FOR POWDER

Appearancelight yellow powder
Diluentrice flour
Molecular weight302.3
Assay: Potassium10.3 % (9.8-10.8 %)
Glycerophosphoric acid: 29.7 % (28.2-31 %)
Moisture Content10 % (9-12 %) (7 % of which is crystalline water)



HEAVY METAL SPECIFICATIONS

Pb: < 5 ppm
Cd: < 5 ppm
As:< 1 ppm



MICROBIOLOGICAL

E. coli: NEG
Salmonella: NEG

Shark Cartilage

DESCRIPTION
The skeleton of sharks is almost entirely comprised of cartilage. Shark's fin, considered a delicacy in Asian countries, is consumed because of its purported ability to promote health, retard aging, and prevent disease. Shark cartilage is obtained from sharks caught for food purposes only.


INDICATIONS
Inflammatory and dermal disease: rheumatoid arthritis, hemorrhoids, psoriasis, ulcerative colitis, puritanis ani, acute skin allergies, osteoarthritis, cancer, free radical exposure and damage.


PHYSIOLOGY
Sharks are known for their powerful immune systems. They are resistant to cancer, even when exposed to potent cancer causing chemicals. One agent which may be responsible for this incredible immunity is the presence in shark cartilage of an anti-angiogenesis substance, which inhibits the growth of new blood vessels. Cartilage is the tough elastic connective tissue found in and between the bones of mammals. The entire skeleton of sharks is made of cartilage. Many medical conditions and diseases such as arthritis, psoriasis, and cancer require blood supply and new blood vessels in order to continue. A protein substance was extracted from shark cartilage with anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effects. This ability to block the growth of new blood vessels could be a major breakthrough in the treatment of a variety of diseases.


BIOCHEMISTRY
Shark cartilage is rich in gycosaminoglycans, or mucopolysaccharides, large macromolecules which are found in all our joints, blood vessels and organs. In addition, shark cartilage is very low in fat content and thus does not require harsh organic solvent extractions to remove the fat, as does chondroitin sulfate.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No known toxicity. Shark cartilage should not be taken by small children, pregnant or nursing women, or people who have recently had a heart attack or surgery, unless instructed by a physician. Some people may experience nausea when taking large doses.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
3000-5000 mg/day, away from food unless experiencing stomach upset.


SAMPLE ANALYSIS (different sources vary considerably)

Description:Shark Cartilage Powder
Appearancelight ivory
Odorcharacteristic
Formfree flowing powder
Hyaluronic Acid1-1.5 %
Chondroitin SulfatesA, B & C1-1.5 %
Fat0.1-0.3 %
Protein 26 %
Carbohydrate7.1-7.8 %
Calcium13.0-17.0 %
Phosphorus8.0-10.0 %
Hexosamine7.95 %
Hydroxyproline5.97 %
Uronic solids10.19 %
Total solids6.19 %
pH (50%)6.0-6.5
Moisture7.5-8.5 %
Loss on drying4.46 %
Residue on Ignition3.90 %
Nitrogen13-15.5 %
Total solids95 % min
Ash8-10 % max
Heavy Metals20 ppm Max
Arsenic(2 ppm Max)
Aerobic plate count< 1000/gm
Gram negative rodsnegative
Gram positive coccinegative for Staph aureus




SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES
Folkman, J. and Klagsbrun, M. (1987) Science 235:442-447.

Langer, R. and Lee, A. (1983) Science Sept. 16:1185-1187.

Weiss and Brown. (1988) Annals in Rheumatic Diseases. 47:881-885.

Shark Liver Oil

DESCRIPTION
Shark Liver Oil is obtained from sharks caught for food purposes only, living in cold, deep oceans. The liver oil from sharks has been used by fishermen for centuries as a folk remedy for general debility, for healing wounds, sores, irritations of the respiratory tract and the alimentary canal, and for lymph node swelling. Shark Liver Oil from Greenland is rich in alkylglycerols, which are naturally found in mother's milk and in bone marrow. Shark Liver Oil from Alaska is especially rich in Vitamins A and D and in essential Omega-3 fatty acids.


PHYSIOLOGY
Shark Liver Oil has been studied extensively in Sweden. Alkylglycerols are involved in the production of white blood cells. Shark Liver Oil was found to stimulate the body's immune system, increasing antibodies, leukocytes and thrombocytes. In particular, shark liver oil was found to increase the survival rate of cervical cancer patients and reduce radiation-induced injuries of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Recent research has also shown alkyglyerols have antibiotic and anti-fungal effects, can speed up the healing of wounds, and can increase the excretion of mercury.


BIOCHEMISTRY
Greenland Shark Liver Oil contains the highest level of alkylglyerols found in nature. Alkylglycerols are found naturally in bone marrow, liver, spleen, and human breast milk. The active ingredients are predominantly esters of selachyl-, chimyl-, and batyl-alcohol, and methoxy-substituted compounds of glycerol. There are 16 known alkylglycerols. Shark liver oil is also a highly concentrated source of pre-formed Vitamin A -- so much so that large amounts can be toxic.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRA-INDICATIONS
No known toxicity for alkylglycerols, but excessive Vitamin A is toxic. Pre-formed Vitamin A intake should be restricted to 10,000 IU per day for pregnant women, especially in the first trimester, and to 20,000 IU per day in most cases for other adults.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
50-300 mg alkylglycerols/day; 1-2 capsules 2-3 times daily. Vitamin A should be limited to 20,000 IU per day; women who are or may become pregnant should limit Vitamin A intake to 10,000 IU per day or less.


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

DescriptionClear golden yellow liquid
Odor and tastefishy, but not rancid
Vitamin A 30,000 to 36,000 IU per gram
Free fatty acidNot more than 1.0 %
Moisture & impuritiesNot more than 1.0%
Clear test(Clear at 10x in 8 hrs: passed)
P.C.B. content170 to 187
Iodine value125 to 155
Unsaponifiable matterNot more than 6.0%
Peroxide valueNot more than 10 m'eq/kg
AntioxidantNegative
Heavy MetalsNot more than 10 ppm
Arsenic(Not more than 0.3 ppm)
Mercury(Not more than 0.5 ppm)




SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES
Brohult, A., et al. (1986) Reduced mortality in cancer patients after administration of alkoxyglycerols. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 65:779-785.

Brohult, A. (1962) Alkoxyglycerols in radiation treatment. Nature 193:1304.

Hallgren, B. et al. (1978) Occurance, synthesis, and biological effect of methoxy-substituted glycerol ethers. Progress in Chemistry of Fats and other Lipids. 16:45.

Boeryd, B. et al. (1978) Stimulation of immune reactivity by methoxy-substituted glyerol ether incorporated into the feed. Eur. J. Immunol. 8:678-680.

Hallgren, B. and Larsson,S. (1962) The glycerol ethers in man and cow. J. Lipid Res. 3:31-38.

N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine

DESCRIPTION
Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC) is an amino-acid based complex found naturally in the body and in such common foods as milk. The major application of ALC supplementation is as a cognition enhancer.


INDICATIONS
Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of ALC in treating Alzheimer's disease, mental impairment resulting from senile dementia, depression in the elderly, alcohol induced cognitive impairment, and cerebrovascular insufficiency. Also, ALC holds considerable promise as an anti-aging agent.


BIOCHEMISTRY
ALC is related to carnitine, a naturally occuring amino acid. In the human body, ALC is present naturally to transport fats into the mitochondria. Mitochondria serve to produce energy in the cells. It is thought ALC improves cognitive function through one or more of the following mechanisms: increasing neuronal metabolism, increasing the activity of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and dopamine, and improving cerebral blood flow. ALC also reduces the formation of the aging pigment, lipofuscin, which builds up in heart and nerve cells as a result of the aging process.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
ALC is considered to be very safe for most people. However, pregnant or nursing women should not take ALC.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
500 mg. to 1,000 mg. two times daily.


SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES
Arrigo, A. et al. (1990) Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine reaction times in patients with cerebrovascular insufficiency. Int J Clin Pharm Res 10(1-2): 133-7

Barnes, C. et al. (1990) Acetyl-L-Carnitine: Effects on learning and memory performance on aged rats in simple and complex mazes. Neorobial Aging 11(5): 499-506

Dean, W. et al. Smart Drugs II. B & J Publications, Santa Cruz, CA

Barley Grass

DESCRIPTION
Barley Grass Powder is extracted from the organically-grown young leaves of barley by dehydrating the green juice of the leaves to a fine powder at room temperature, using a special patented spray-drying process.


BIOCHEMISTRY
An analysis by the Resource Research Association, Office of Science and Technology in Japan, shows the juice from young barley leaves is rich in vitamins (including beta carotene, B vitamins, and Vitamin C), minerals (potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and magnesium), chlorophyll, essential and non-essential amino acids, and various enzymes, including an anti-oxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD).


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No known toxicity.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
500 -1500 mg/day


BIO-ENHANCING AGENTS
Brown rice powder is often added to balance the extreme alkaline nature of barley and to increase the B Vitamin content. Green angelica leaf is also extremely high in chlorophyll and B Vitamins, including B 12, which is rarely found in plant form.


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Water (10 mm Hg)1.3%
Protein (Nx6.25)11.5%
Fat (Soxhlet Extract)0.2%
Fiber5.9%
Ash4.4%
Non-Fibrous Carbohydrate76.7%
Phosphorus354mg /100g
Iron12.0mg/100g
Calcium406mg/100g
Sodium191mg/100g
Potassium1.04%
Magnesium46.4mg/100g
Carotene12.5mg/100g
Thiamin1.04mg/100g
Riboflavin1.55mg/100g
Total Ascorbic Acid.86mg/100g
Tocopherol (by HPLC)12.9mg/100g
Chlorophyll247mg/100g

Barley Beta-Glucans

DESCRIPTION

Soluble barley fiber containing 55% Beta-Glucans. Beta-Glucans are the soluble dietary fiber component of cereals, thought to have serum cholesterol reducing activity. The Beta-Glucans can be concentrated from barley by alcohol extraction.

INDICATIONS

Beta-Glucans have received a lot of media attention due to reports identifying them as the agent in oat bran and barley capable of reducing serum cholesterol, and stimulating the immune system (the (1-3)-Beta-Glucan). Beta-Glucans can be used in place of oat bran in nutritional supplements and food products. Beta-Glucans are also useful in cosmetics, in skin care products. The product is also useful wherever additional anti-oxidants are needed due to its content of tocotrienes. Soluble Beta-Glucans can also be used in weight loss formulas.

PHYSIOLOGY
Barley has been reported to reduce serum cholesterol in animals and humans. Soluble dietary fibers such as Beta-Glucans are important nutrients for the diet, to help maintain healthy levels of cholesterol in the blood.

BIOCHEMISTRY

(1-3)(1-4)-linked Beta-D-Glucan is a polysaccharide, or soluble fiber component, found in a variety of cereals. Beta-Glucans occur in highest amounts in the endosperm of barley and oats. Barley soluble fiber is also rich in tocotrienes, which are antioxidants related to Vitamin E.

TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS

No known toxicity.

SUGGESTED USE

Up to 20 grams per day of Beta-Glucans, taken with or mixed into meals. The optimal level of fiber in the diet is 30 to 50 grams per day of mixed soluble and insoluble fibers for adults.

SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Description:Barley Beta-Glucans
Appearancefine white powder
Flavorbland
Solubility Easily in water
Polysaccharides70 %
Beta Glucans55 %
Oligosaccharides 9 %
Proteins 8 %
Moisture 7%
Ash 6 %



SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES

Wood, P. Physiochemical properties and technological and nutritional significance of cereal Beta-Glucans.

Beta-Sitosterol

DESCRIPTION

Vegetable-derived phytosterols, mainly Beta-Sitosterol, with campesterol and stigmasterol. Derived by a de-oiling process; a concentration of the unsaponifiables found in vegetable sources.

INDICATIONS

Diets calling for an above average intake of phytosterols including beta-sitosterol and campesterol. The material can be used in food supplements or in food preparations. Studies have shown beta-sitosterol lowers serum cholesterol levels. In addition, research has shown reduction in colon carcinogenesis in animals taking beta-sitosterol.

BIOCHEMISTRY

Chemically, phytosterols are vegetable analogues of cholesterol. Phytosterols are found in a variety of vegetables, including grains, nuts, seeds, and fruits.

PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY

Research has shown phytosterols interfere with cholesterol absorption and thus prevent the rise in serum cholesterol. Clinical trials with humans showed eating phytosterols reduced serum cholesterol levels. Phytosterols may possibly also reduce serum cholesterol by inhibiting the intestinal reabsorption of circulating cholesterol.

DIRECTIONS FOR USE

300 mg/day

SAMPLE ANALYSIS

SpecificationsDetermined
Phytosterols80-97 %958.2 mg/g
Beta-Sitosterol45-55 %558.1 mg/g
Campesterol20-30 %200.0 mg/g
Stigmasterol18-25 %200.1 mg/g


AppearanceTan, powder, opaque, soap-like material
Odorslight
BPNot Determined
MP121 oC (250 oF)
Specific Gravity (h20=1): <1
Vapor PressureNot Determined
Percent Volatile by Volume:Not Applicable
Vapor Density(Air=1)Not Applicable
Evaporation Rate:Not Applicable
Solubility in water:Negligible
Flash Point231 oC (448 oF)
Autoignition Temperature247 oC (478 oF)
Flammable LimitsNot Determined
Extinguishing AgentWater Spray, Dry Chemical, CO2, Foam
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:None known




TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS

No known toxicity.


REFERENCES

Drexel, H. (1981) Lowering Plasma cholesterol with beta-sitosterol and diet. Lancet. May 23:1157.

Nair, P., et al. (1984) Diet, nutrition intake, and metabolism in populations at high and low risk for colon cancer. Dietary cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 40:927-930.

Mattson, F. et al. (1982) Optimizing the effect of plant sterols on cholesterol absorption in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 35:697-700.

Paul, S. (1986) Phytosterols: a natural approach to cholesterol control. Whole Foods Oct.:37-38

Borage Seed Oil

DESCRIPTION
The product is a translucent yellow edible oil produced from Borage seed (Borago officinalis). The oil is used in supplements, dietetic foods, and cosmetics (skin solutions, ointments, creams, and shampoos).


INDICATIONS
Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of GLA for a wide variety of disorders, including Atherosclerosis, Diabetes Mellitus, Eczema, Multiple Sclerosis, and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS).


BIOCHEMISTRY
Borage Oil naturally contains the highest quantity of the essential fatty acid, gamma linolenic acid (GLA), an Omega-6 essential fatty acid. GLA is normally synthesized in the liver from dietary linoleic acid (LA). This reaction, however is frequently deficient in many people because of interference by disease, stress, sugar, saturated fats, and trans-fatty acids (e.g. margarine). In addition, the conversion requires Vitamins B-3, B-6, and C, as well as the minerals magnesium, zinc, and copper. Any deficiencies of these nutrients may affect the conversion.


PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY
GLA is part of the Omega 6 series of essential fatty acids and is the critical precursor to the Series 1 prostaglandins (PGE1) and other hormones in the body. The PGE1 series prostaglandins, along with the PGE3 series, protect the body against the deleterious effects of PGE2 series prostaglandins, such as high blood pressure, sticky platelets, inflamation, water retention, and lowered immune function. The series 2 prostaglandins are made from arachidonic acid, which is derived from consumption of excess animal products.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No known toxicity associated with Borage Oil. Excess consumption can result in oily skin, an indication to decrease usage.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
500-3000 mg/day Borage Oil; 100-800 mg/day GLA


Specifications:transparent yellow oildry white powder
Fatty Acid CompositionOilPowder
Palmitic(16:0)10.2 %4-8 %
Palmitoleic0.3%N/A
Stearic(18:0)3.3 %N/A
Oleic (18:1)15.1 %8-12 %
Linoleic (18:2)38.0 %21-25 %
Gamma linolenic (18:3,GLA)24.2 %13-16 %
Eicosaenoic acid4 %
Erucic acid2 %
Water/ml0.90-0.93
Acid Value0.70-0.95 %
Peroxide Value1.00-3.50 mEq/kg
Solventnot detected
Arsenicnot detected
Leadnot detected
Mercurynot detected
Standard plate countless than 300/g
Coliformsnone
Agriculture chemicalsnone




SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES
Miller, C. and Zaboh, V. (1988) Gamma-linolenic Acid-enriched diet alters cutaneous eicosanoids. Bioche and Biophy Res. Comm. Aug. 15:967-974.

Miller, C. et al. (1990) Oxidative metabolism of Dihomo-g-linolenic acid by guinea pig epidermis: Evidence of anti-inflammatory products. Prosta. 35(6).

Chapkin, R. et al. (1988) Fatty acid composition of macrophage phospholipids in mice fed fish or borage oil. Lipids, 23(4)

Engler, M. Alcohol and polyunsaturated fatty acids: implications for cardiovascular disease. Comm. Nurs. Res. 23:75.

Chondroitin Sulfate

DESCRIPTION
Chondroitin Sulfates (CS) are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) which are found naturally in the body and are important in maintaining elasticity and integrity of many types of body tissues, including connective tissue and the walls of blood vessels.


INDICATIONS
Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of CS supplementation for the healing of connective and certain other tissues that have been injured or otherwise degraded through malnutition, aging or certain drugs and diseases. CS supplementation may also be indicated as a preventive or possible treatment agent for certain vascular conditions.


BIOCHEMISTRY
Chondroitin sulfates (CS) are a component of cartilage, which in turn is a component of connective tissue. Helping to give support and shape to tissues, cartilage is found in joints, between vertebrae and elsewhere. CS create a net electronegative charge, which attracts water. Hydration maintains the compressibility, elasticity and fluidity of joint movement characteristic of healthy cartilage. As a result of aging, the water content of cartilage decreases, causing problems in joint mobility. The integrity and function of cartilage can also be detrimentally affected by acute traumatic injury, arthritis, malnutition and other conditions. CS are also components of the walls of blood vessels. CS are important in maintaining vascular health. In addition, CS are known to activate lipoprotein lipase on capillary endothelial cells, which helps blood lipids to be metabolized.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS

Chondroitin sulfate is considered to be safe and there are no known contra-indications.

Patients taking NSAID should consult with their physicians if they have a bleeding disorder, or are taking anticoagulant therapy (Warfarin). (Chavez, 1997) Chemicvally modified bovine chondroitin sulfate enhances anticoagulant activity. (Maruyama, 1998)

DIRECTIONS FOR USE
Two 300 mg. capsules taken three times per day for healing phase. One to three 300 mg. capsules one to three times daily as a maintenance dose. (Source: Biotics Research Corp.)


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Appearancewhite powder, strong odor and flavor
Loss on drying3.7%
Solubility 5%clear solution
Rotation-22°
Sulphuric ashes26.7%
pH 1%6.2
Heavy Metals< 10 ppm
Sulphur5.7%
Microbiological specifications:
Total count< 300 CFU/g
E. Colineg.
Salmonellaneg.
s.aureusneg.
p.aeruginosaneg.
mold & yeast< 5 CFU/g
Arsenic< 2 ppm



SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES

Burkhardt, H., et al. (1986) Oxygen radicals as effectors of cartilage destruction. Arth. Rheum. 29(3), 379-387.

Chang, RJ et al., How does warfarin affect the activated coagulation time? Am./ Heart J. 1998, 136(3):477-479.

Chavez, M: Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfates. Hospital Pharmacy, 1997, 52(9): 1,275-1,285.

Cruess, R.L., ed. (1982) The Musculoskeletal System: Embryology, Biochemistry and Physiology. Churchstone Livingstone, NY.

Maruyama, T et al., Conformational changes and anticoagulant activity of chondroitin sulfate following O-sulfonation. Carbohydr. Res. 1998, 306(1-2):35-43.

Nelson, C.L., et al. (1984) The Aging Musculoskeletal System, Physiological and Pathological Problems. Collamore Press.

Evening Primrose Seed Oil

DESCRIPTION
Solvent-free, cold-pressed Evening Primrose Oil extracted from the seeds of the Evening Primrose plant.


INDICATIONS
Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of GLA for a wide variety of disorders, including Atherosclerosis, Diabetes Mellitus, Eczema, Multiple Sclerosis, and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS).


BIOCHEMISTRY
Evening Primrose Oil is the best known source of the essential fatty acid, Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA). GLA is normally synthesized in the liver from dietary linoleic acid (LA). This reaction, however, is frequently deficient in many people because of interference by disease, stress, sugar, saturated fats, and trans-fatty acids (e.g. margarine). In addition, the conversion requires Vitamins B-3, B-6, and C, as well as the minerals magnesium, zinc, and copper. Any deficiencies of these nutrients may affect the conversion.


PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY
GLA is part of the Omega 6 series of essential fatty acids, and is the critical precursor to the series 1 prostaglandins and other hormones in the body. The PGE1 series prostaglandins along with the PGE3 series protect the body against the deleterious effects of PGE2 series prostaglandins, such as high blood pressure, sticky platelets, inflammation, water retention, and lowered immune function. The series 2 prostaglandins are made from arachidonic acid, which is derived from consumption of animal products.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No known toxicity associated with Evening Primrose Oil. Excess consumption can result in oily skin, an indication to decrease dosage.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
50-300 mg/day GLA (500-3000 mg per day Evening Primrose Oil)


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Specificationsclear transparent edible oil
QualityExtracted crude oil
Colorlight yellow



Fatty Acid Composition:(9% GLA)(10+% GLA)
Palmitic (16:0)7.6 %6.5 %
Palmitoleic (16:1)0.1%0.1 %
Stearic (18:0)2.4 %1.6 %
Oleic (18:1)11.2 %8.3 %
Linoleic (18:2)68.3 %72.1 %
Alpha linolenic (18:3, ALA)0.1 % 0.1 %
Gamma linolenic (18:3w6,GLA)8.8 %10.5 %
Erucic (22:1)0.2 %
Other acids0.5%0.5 %




SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES
Arnold, L. et al. (1989) Gamma linolenic acid for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: placebo-controlled comparison to D-amphetamine. Biol. Psychiat. 25(2):222-8.

Beaudoin, A. et al (1989) Type of dietary lipids exerts a major influence on the secretory activity of the exocrine pancreas: medium-term studies. Panc. 4(4):418-422.

Behan, P. and Behan, W. (1990) Essential fatty acids in the treatmentof postviral fatigue syndrome. In: Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids: Pathophysiology and Roles in Clinical Medicine. Horrobin, D. ed. NY: Liss, pp 275-282.

Belch, J. (1990) Essential Fatty Acids and rheumatoid arthritis. In: Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids: Pathophysiology and Roles in Clinical Medicine. Horrobin, D., ed. NY: Liss, pp 223-237.

Pullon, S. et al. (1989) Treatment of premenstrual symptoms in Wellington women. N Z Med J. 102(862):72-74.

Pritchard, G. et al. (1989) Melanoma growth in vivo is inhibited by dietary intake of primrose oil and fish oil. (abstract) Br J Surg. 75(6):612.

Pritchar, G. et al. (1989) Lipids in breast carcinogenesis. Br J Surg Oct; 76:1069-73.

Sharpe, G. and Farr, P. (1990) Evening primrose oil and eczema (Letter). Lancet Mar 17; 335 (8690):667-668.

Takahashi, R. and Ito, H. (1988) Altered platelet arachidonic acid metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetes: clinical application of polyunsaturated fatty acids in diabetic neuropathy. J Jpn Diabetic Soc. Suppl;178-84.

Vaddadi, K. and Gilleard, C. (1989) A double blind trial of essential fatty acid supplementation on abnormal movements, psychiatric status and memory in patients with tardive dyskinesia. Psych Res. 27:313-23.

Fish Protein

DESCRIPTION
Fish Protein Powder provides a new source of protein to complement overused soy and other protein powders. The Fish protein is harvested from deep-sea fish in the pristine waters near Alaska. The powder can be added to a variety of food products to provide a healthy source of easily digestible protein. Bakery and pasta products are particularly amenable. The fish protein can be added to weight loss and protein supplements and can be used as powder capsule filler. In any area of the food chain where protein is a requirement for health and nutrition, as well as for all animal feed products, fish protein powder can be used as the protein base.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No known toxicity.


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

DescriptionFish protein concentrate
Appearancepowder
Protein75.0%
Fat2.5 %
Moisture2.9%
Ash12.9 %
Carbohydrate6.7%

Klamath Blue-Green Algae

DESCRIPTION
Klamath Blue Green Algae is wild, fresh-water algae, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, harvested from the pristine waters of Upper Klamath Lake located in the remote area of the southern Oregon Cascades. Extreme care is taken to harvest the blue green algae in such a way as not to disrupt the delicate ecosystem of the region and to preserve and protect this precious resource. The algae is harvested fresh from the lake on a daily basis and flash frozen to preserve all the vital nutrients intact and biologically active in a naturally balanced profile. The glycolipoprotein cell wall is disrupted during the freeze drying, making the cell contents available for rapid assimilation.


INDICATIONS
Klamath Blue-Green Algae provides balanced whole-food nutrition with its excellent source of essential amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids. Consumers have reported increased energy, decreased fatigue, elevated brain activity, improved memory and concentration, increased muscle mass and tone, and enhanced health.


BIOCHEMISTRY
Aphanizomenon is an ancient strain of cyanobacteria with an extremely high concentration of chlorophyll. Aphanizomenon contains large amounts of high quality protein, with a complete complement of essential amino acids. In addition, Blue-Green Algae contains a full spectrum of minerals and vitamins, including Vitamin B-12 and Beta Carotene.


BIOLOGY
Blue Green Alage is a Blue-Green Protista which grows prolifically during the summer months in the Upper Klamath Lake. The Lake is a freshwater lake fed by rivers and underground springs which provide a mineral rich nutrient reservoir for the algae.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
No known toxicity.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
2-4 gms/day.


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Description:Blue-Green Algae, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae
Appearancegreen
Odorcharacteristic
FormFree flowing powder
Protein 60 %
Carbohydrate22 %
Lipid(fat)5 %
Minerals (Ash)7 %
Chlorophyll3 %
Moisture3 %
VITAMINSPer 1 gm of algae
Provitamin A (beta carotene)2400 IU
Thiamine (B1)4.8 mcg
Riboflavin (B2)57.3 mcg
Pyridoxine (B6)11.1 mcg
Cobalamin (B12)8.0 mcg
Ascorbic Acid (C)6.7 mg
Niacin (B3)0.13 mg
Folic Acid1.0 mcg
Choline2.3 mg
Pantothenic Acid (B5)6.8 mcg
Biotin0.33 mcg
Vitamin E0.13 IU
MINERALSPer 1 gm of algae
Boron10 mg
Calcium14 mg
Chlorine464 mcg
Chromium0.53 mcg
Cobalt2.0 mcg
Copper4.0 mcg
Fluorine38.0 mcg
Germanium0.27 mcg
Iodide0.53 mcg
Iron350.7 mcg
Magnesium 2.2 mg
manganese32 mcg
Molybenum3.3 mcg
Nickel5.3 mcg
Phosphorus5.1 mg
Potassium12 mcg
Selenium0.67 mcg
Silicon186.7 mcg
Sodium2.7 mg
Tin0.5 mcg
Titanium23.3 mcg
Vanadium2.7 mcg
Zinc18.7 mcg

L-Ornithine Alpha-Ketoglutarate

DESCRIPTION
L-ornithine Alphaketoglutarate (OKG) is an amino acid compound which improves performance in hypercatabolic states associated with such activities as vigorous sports and weight-lifting.


INDICATIONS
OKG is valuable as a nutritional supplement in conjunction with strenuous physical activity for its ability to increase endurance, shorten recovery time, and increase muscle mass.


BIOCHEMISTRY
L-ornithine and alpha-ketoglutarate work synergistically in hypercatabolic states to achieve several favorable intermediate outcomes. OKG reduces the rate at which ammonia accumulates. The nitrogen-sparing quality of OKG may be related to its ability to reduce the rate of glutamine loss. Glutamine plays an important role in protein turnover during catabolic states. As a result of these intermediate outcomes, OKG increases endurance, reduces muscle fatigue and shortens recovery time. In addition, OKG increases production of human growth hormone, which in turn increases muscle mass.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
OKG is considered to be non-toxic and there are no known contraindications.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
10 grams daily in one dose.


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Appearancewhite powder
AssayL-ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate 98%
Loss on drying< 2%
Bulk density0.657 gm/cc
Heavy Metal specifications:
Pb< 10 ppm
As< 1 ppm
Hg< 1 ppm
Microbiological specifications:
Total count< 5,000 / gm
E. Colineg.
Salmonellaneg.




SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES
Abumrad, N. et al. (1989) Possible sources of glutamine for parenteral nutrition: impact on glutamine metabolism. Am J Phys. 257: 228-234.

Cynober, L. et al. (1984) Kinetics and metabolic effects of orally administered ornithine a-ketoglutarate in healthy subjects fed with a standardized regimen. Amer. Jour. Clin. Nutr. 39: 514-519.

Wernerman, J. et al. (1990) a-Ketoglutarate and post-operative muscle catabolism. Lancet ii. 701-703.

N-Acetyl Cysteine

DESCRIPTION
N-Acetyl Cysteine is a non-toxic derivative of the dietary amino acid L-cysteine, and is a dietary precursor to reduced glutathione (GSH). N-Acetyl Cysteine is a sulfhydryl (-SH) substance, in the form of a crystalline powder with a acid taste and slightly characteristic odor.


INDICATIONS
N-Acetyl Cysteine is a powerful anti-oxidant and cell detoxification cofactor. By eliminating free radicals and carrying heavy metals out of the body, there is a vast improvement in cellular health and in the aging process. Recent studies focusing upon HIV and AIDS have strongly suggested N-Acetyl Cysteine could function as an antiviral compound, effectively suppressing HIV activation and replication in vitro, and supporting T lymphocyte function in humans. Additional applications of N-Acetyl Cysteine in the prevention of nitrate tolerance, and in the management of gallstones and cystine kidney stones, may be proven effective with future clinical studies. In the FDA Medwatch program brochure, the FDA stated acetominophen overdoses require "immediate treatment to prevent permanent damage" using N-Acetyl Cysteine.


PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY
N-Acetyl Cysteine is currently the dietary supplement of choice for building up or conserving the body's stores of glutathione, cysteine and other sulfhydryl anti-oxidant resources. Reduced glutathione is an integral component of the body's anti-oxidant defenses and in innumerable ways is involved in maintaining life functions. Favorable sulfhydryl balance is important for the neutralization of toxins, including heavy metals (such as mercury from dental amalgam fillings, cadmium, and lead from paint) and cigarette smoke. The sulfhydryl balance has also been linked to enhanced resistance to viral infections.


BIOCHEMISTRY
N-Acetyl Cysteine, or NAC, is a more stable form of the sulfated amino acid cysteine. It is a more bioavailable and much more cost-effective substitute for tripeptide glutathione. Glutathione consists of the amino acids cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine. The body has to break the tripeptide apart in order to absorb glutathione, and only about half gets through the digestive system. Cysteine is the least abundant of the three peptides; its availability is the rate determining factor for the production of glutathione. Regular L-cysteine loses approximately 85% of its sulphur groups in the digestive process. N-Acetyl Cysteine, on the other hand, is readily absorbed and loses only 15% of its sulfur groups. Therefore, NAC is an excellent dietary starting molecule for building up reduced glutathione. N-Acetyl Cysteine is also a biochemical resource for the detoxification of 'xenobiotics', substances foreign to the body. Sulfhydryls such as NAC are crucial for the detoxification of heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium and lead.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
N-Acetyl Cysteine is very safe for oral supplementation. Ingestion of large doses (5-6 grams per day) can cause mild diarrhea or vomiting. Certain antibiotics may become inactivated if mixed directly with N-Acetyl-Cysteine.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
600 to 1000 mg per day


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Descriptioncrystalline white powder
Loss on drying0.14%
State of solutionpass test
Residue on ignition0.05%
Sulfate (SO4)>0.03%
Heavy Metals (as Pb)> 10 ppm
Iron (Fe)1.2 ppm
Ammonium (NH4)> 0.02%
Arsenous oxide> 1 ppm
Other amino acidspass test
Chloride (Cl)> 0.04 %
Assay99.74%

Pacific Oyster Extract

DESCRIPTION
Pacific Oyster Extract (Crassostreagis thunberg) is prepared from mature Japanese oysters, harvested from the cold, clean, mineral-rich seawaters of the Sanriku Coast of Nothern Japan between March and May of each year just before spawning, when their nutritional content is at its peak. The fresh oysters are treated with special enzymes and then freeze-dried, retaining the taurine-rich extra-cellular fluids normally lost in the preparation of commercial oysters. The oysters are also rich in glycogen and well-balanced proteins, and are a source of essential minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins.


INDICATIONS
Controlled clinical studies show Pacific Oyster Extract can help relieve angina, normalize blood pressure, correct cardiac arrhythmia, normalize blood sugar levels in diabetics, and alleviate liver disturbances due to poor fat metabolism and alcohol consumption. Liver function is largely dependent upon Taurine in the form of taurocholic acid for the metabolism of dietary fats. The observed improvement in cases of cirrhosis, gall stones and hepatitis with administration of Oyster Extract most likely arises from the increased level of taurocholic acid in the liver.


BIOLOGY
Pacific oysters are a relatively rich source of the amino acid taurine. Taurine is not incorporated into protein as other amino acids are; it exists in the free form or as taurocholic acid. Research has shown taurine is vital for cardiovascular health, affecting blood pressure, heart rhythm, and myocardium contraction. Taurine is important in adrenal function, nerve impulse transmission, and in eye physiology. In addition, as a component of taurocholic acid, which is a potent bile emulsifier, taurine is vital to liver and gall bladder biochemistry.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
None known.


SUGGESTED USAGE
250-500 mg/ day


SAMPLE ANALYSISper 100 grams
Protein (Amino Acids, etc.)42.0 g
Carbohydrate (Glycogen, etc.)41.3 g
Glycogen(18.5 g)
Fat2.4 g
Ash11.1 g
Fiber0.0 g
Water Content3.2 g
Energy370 Kcal



Mineralsper 100 grams
Calcium410.00 mg
Sodium2500 mg
Phosphorus472 mg
Iron20.40 mg
Manganese3.6 mg
Copper6.86 mg
Potassium1190 mg
Zinc104 mcg
Magnesium246 mg
Iodine1.0 mg
Cobalt21 mcg



Vitaminsper 100 grams:
Total Carotene198 mcg
Vitamin B1530 mcg
Vitamin B21.15 mg
Vitamin B6300 mcg
Vitamin B1260 mcg
Biotin24.5 mcg
Inositol98.00 mg



Amino Acidsper 100 grams:
Taurine4.05 mg
Arginine2.09 mg
Lysine2.33 mg
Histidine720 mcg
Phenylalanine1.08 mg
Serine1.31 mg
Leucine2.00 mg
Isoleucine1.26 mg
Methionine700 mcg
Valine1.48 mg
Alanine2.33 mg
Glycine3.08 mg
Proline2.36 mg
Tyrosine1.00 mg
Glutamic Acid4.81 mg
Apartic Acid3.64 mg
Tryptophan310 mcg
Cysteine470 mcg
Threonine1.34 mg

Pyridoxine Alpha-Ketoglutarate

DESCRIPTION
Pyridoxine alpha-ketoglutarate (PAK) is a nutritional complex of Vitamin B6 and alpha-ketoglutaric acid that improves physical performance and normalizes blood sugar levels.


INDICATIONS
Pak is especially useful in situations such as athletics where optimal physical performance is important. In addition, this complex may be valuable in managing Type I and Type II diabetes.


BIOCHEMISTRY
PAK is comprised of pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) and alpha-ketoglutaric acid (an energy substrate). In the body, these two components of PAK work synergistically to increase energy production in the mitochondria (the part of the cell where energy is produced) by increasing the availability of energy substrates. PAK also reduces the accumulation of lactic and pyruvic acids, which in turn reduces the muscle-fatiguing effects of strenuous activity. In addition, PAK tends to normalize glucose (blood sugar) levels, which could be especially significant for managing Type I and Type II diabetes.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
PAK is considered to be non-toxic and there are no known contraindications.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
30 mg. per kg. (2.2 pounds) of body weight in divided doses for adults engaging in vigorous exercise.


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Appearancewhite powder
Assaypyridoxine 46%
Loss on drying< 2%
Bulk density0.532 gm/cc



Heavy Metal specifications:

Pb< 10 ppm
As< 1 ppm
Hg< 1 ppm



Microbiological specifications:

Total count< 5,000 /gm
E. Colineg.
Salmonellaneg.




SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES
Dall'Aglio, E. et al. (1982) The effect of pyridoxine alpha-ketoglutarate (PAK) in exercise-induced increase of blood lactate in patients with type I diabetes. Int J Clin Pharm Ther Tox. 20:147-150

Marconi, C. et al. (1982) The effect of alpha-ketoglutarate on human maximal aerobic and anaerobic performance. European Jour Applied Phys. 49: 307-310C

Wheat Sprout Powder

DESCRIPTION
Wheat Sprouts are produced by germinating wheat grains (seeds) and allowing them to grow a few inches tall, usually under hydroponic conditions. They may then be dried and powdered, or they may be sold fresh or juiced.


INDICATIONS
Advanced dietary supplement containing vitamins, minerals, and anti-oxidants.


BIOLOGY
Wheat Sprouts are one of nature's most nutrient-packed foods. Some specially-grown sprouts contain significant anti-oxidant properties from enhanced levels of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase. Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase are critical components of the anti-oxidant support system in the body. They detoxify superoxides and other free radicals.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
None known


SUGGESTED USAGE
300 mg-900 mg /day


SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Ash6.5 %
Moisture11.7 %
Protein39.3 %
Fat1.2 %
Calories3.33 /gm
Fiber17.5 %
Vitamin A1.83 IU/gr
Vitamin C0.04 mg/gm
Vitamin B10.001 mg/gr
Vitamin B120.005 mg/gr
Niacin0.09 mg/gr
Zn59 mcg/gr
Cu14 mcg/gr
Mn24 mcg/gr
Na3169 mcg/gr
Fe693 mcg/gr
Se< 0.1 mcg/gr
Coliforms< 4 /gr
Salmonellaneg
Pesticidesneg
Heavy Metalsneg

Aloe Vera Sp

DESCRIPTION
Aloe Vera, a perennial succulent belonging to the lily family, is a well known herbal medicine with multiple names, such as 'The First Aid Miracle Plant', 'The Burn Plant', etc. The botanical name is 'Aloe Barba-densis, Miller'. Aloe Vera means 'true aloe' in Latin.


INDICATIONS
Aloe Vera has been found to be useful in the treatment of first or second degree burns, acne dandruff, allergic lesions, 'Poisons Three' (Sumac, Oak, and Ivy), bites and stings, minor cuts, herpes (simplex and zoster), etc.


PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY
In general, Aloe Vera has the following characteristics: Anti-microbial activity (viral, fungal and bacterial); healing activity - it helps the body in sloughing off dead tissues and stimulates the growth of new cells with little scar formation for most people (e.g. burns); analgesic and anti-pruritic effects (arthritis); astringent effect (cosmetics); anti-inflammatory action (e.g. bee stings).


BIOCHEMISTRY
The active substances of Aloe Vera are found in the leaves which are composed of the rind, juice and a gel-like substance, the pulp. The active substances are polysaccharides, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, yellow sap (Aloin, or anthraquinones) and Barbaloins (a glycoside), etc. The pulp of Aloe Vera is composed of 96% water and 4% polysaccharides and other substances.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRA-INDICATIONS
No known toxicity. While small amounts taken internally stimulate cell growth and healing, massive amounts may contain enough proteolytic enzymes to cause bleeding. Not for use by pregnant women, because it may produce laxative effects.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE
Aloe Vera Powder is used as a supplement to food or drinks, as well as in cosmetics, skin care and hair care products, and O.T.C. pharmaceuticals.


SAMPLE ANALYSIS (Extension Ratio 1:200)
Appearancefine powder
Colorlight cream to beige
Odormoderate vegetable
% Water8% max.
Dispersion rate15 minutes
Total micro @ 48 hrs.10cfu/g
pH3.5-5.0
Specific Gravity @ 25 C0.997 - 1.004
Total solids, %0.5 min.

Lycopene

DESCRIPTION

While Beta Carotene (or pro Vitamin A) is the compound which colors vegetables yellow or orange; another carotene: Lycopene, gives the rich-red color of pink grapefruit, water melon and, especially, ripe tomatoes.

Some 85% of the lycopene obtained from our diet derives from tomato-based products.

However, raw tomatoes and even processed tomato juice do not seem to be as beneficial as the processed forms, in particular tomato sauces cooked with oil. The oil appears to enhance absorption while the riper tomatoes used (and possibly other factors involved in processing and/or cooking) further increase the presence and bioavailability of the lycopene.

INDICATIONS

Atherosclerosis (lycopene inhibits the oxidation of LDL cholesterol), cancer: breast, endometrial, lung, pancreas and, especially, prostate.

Lycopene is also the predominant carotenoid found in testes, so may be indicated also for testicular cancer.

PHYSIOLOGY/PHARMACOLOGY

Lycopene is the most efficient scavenger of singlet oxygen molecules among the carotenoids.

Also, lycopene efficiently increases gap-junctional communication between cells. Gap-junction communication between cells is lost during malignancy and it is hypothesized that restoration of this communication could reverse the malginant process.

Studies have shown that lycopene inhibits the growth of human endometrial, mammary and lung cancer cells in vitro. Moreover, it does so more rapidly (within a day) versus two or three days for other carotenoids.


TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS

No toxicity known. The body only uses Lycopene and other Carotenes as needed.

While cancer cells are sensitive to lycopene, normal cells overcome growth inhibition in a short time.

BIOCHEMISTRY

While lacking in provitamin A, lycopene still has antioxidant properties.

Consumption of tomato products results in peak serum concentrations being reached within 24 - 48 hours. There is a half-life of 2 or 3 days. Concentration rises, with continued consumption.

There also appears to be a seasonal fluctuation with peak concentrations being reached during summer and fall.

DIRECTIONS FOR USE

Three foods have currently been documented to have an inverse relationship of the amount consumed to the risk of developing prostate cancer: tomatoes, tomato sauce and pizza. It is not surprising then that the world's largest processor of tomatoes, the H.J. Heinz Company, should be delighted to publicize this research!

Capsule formulations are beginning to appear in the marketplace. A typical capsule would have 3 mg of lycopene. Lycopene is also part of antioxidant formulations and may be found together with other carotenoids to improve vision and other conditions.

CURRENT ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer

Examined the relationship between the intake of various carotenoids, retinol, fruits, and vegetables and the risk of prostate cancer.

Between 1986 and 1992, 812 new cases of prostate cancer, including 773 non-stage Al cases, were documented. Intakes of the carotenoids beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lutein, and beta-cryptoxanthin were not associated with risk of non-stage Al prostate cancer; only lycopene intake was related to lower risk. Of 46 vegetables and fruits or related products, four were significantly associated with lower prostate cancer risk; of the four--tomato sauce, tomatoes, and pizza, but not strawberries--were primary sources of lycopene.

Combined intake of tomatoes, tomato sauce, tomato juice, and pizza (which accounted for 82% of lycopene intake) was inversely associated with risk of prostate cancer, for consumption frequency greater than 1 0 versus less than 1. 5 servings per week.

Findings suggest that intake of lycopene or other compounds in tomatoes may reduce prostate cancer risk, but other measured carotenoids are unrelated to risk.

Tomato-based foods may be especially beneficial regarding prostate cancer risk.

Giovannucci E et al: Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst, 1995 Dec 6, 87:23, 1767-76.

SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES

Giovannucci E et al: Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst, 1995 Dec 6, 87:23, 1767-76.

Levy, J. et al: Nutr Cancer 1995; 24: 257-266.

Scott, K.J. et al: The correlation between intake of lutein, lycopene and B-carotene from vegetables and fruits in blood plasma concentrations in a group of women aged 50 - 65 years in the UK. Br. J. Nutrition, 1996,75: 409 - 418.

Stahl, W. et al: cis-trans isomers of lycopene and beta-carotene in human serum and tissues. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1992, 294(1): 173 - 177.

Stahl, W. & Sies, H.: Uptake of lycopene and its geometrical isomers is greater from heat-processed than from unprocessed tomato juice in humans. J. Nutrition, 1992, 122(11): 2161 - 2166.

Stahl W, Sies H: Lycopene: a biologically important carotenoid for humans? Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 336:1-9, 1996.

Cernilton

History of Pollen Extracts

Pollen and its extracts have been used for many years as therapeutic agents for a number of conditions. For the last forty years a Swedish company has manufactured specific extracts to relieve prostate symptoms.

Research Briefs:

1. Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia with Prostat, China Medical University Affiliated to The First Hospital, (June 1996)

Sixty-six (66) patients aged 53-61 years diagnosed with BPH were treated with a pollen extract product (Prostat) for six months, using 2 tablets per day. Objective criteria were quality of life (I-PSS), size of prostate by DRE and ultrasound, and residual urine and maximum urine flow rates. 41% of the cases were rated severe; 59% were rated moderate.

The overall clinical effective rate was 87.1% after 3 months and 92% after 6 months. There was a statistically significant reduction in the average of the residual urine. Prostat was found to reduce the size of the prostate, to have a possible curative effect on the underlying cause of the disease itself, and to be an effective agent for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. No significant side effects were noted.


2. Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Chronic Non-bacterial prostatitis with Prostat, Shanghai Male Disease Medical Consultation and Service Center, June, 1996.

One-hundred eighteen (118) patients aged 45-81 years, diagnosed with BPH, and nineteen (19) patients aged 21-46 years, diagnosed with chronic non-bacterial prostatitis, were treated with Prostat for three months. In the BPH group, the overall clinical effective rate was 81.5%. In the chronic non-bacterial prostatitis group, the total clinical effective rate was 73.7%. No adverse reactions were noted.


3. Results of Treatment with Pollen Extract (Cernilton) in Chronic Prostatitis and Prostatodynia, British Journal of Urology (1993), 71, 433-438.

A six month , controlled study of patients (#90) with chronic prostatitis syndrome. Cernilton was 78% effective in the treatment of patients with chronic BPH, non-bacterial prostatitis and prostatodynia. 38% had the prostate revert to normal size. Significant beneficial effects were in all symptoms associated with these conditions. The extract was well tolerated in 97% of the casesand in no case was therapy discontinued because of adverse effects.


4. Clinical Effect of Cernilton in Chronic Prostatitis, Acta. urol. Jpn. (1992), 38, 489-494.

Patients (#25) with chronic prostatitis were given Cernilton tablets. Improvement of subjective symptoms and objective findings was noted in 96% and 76% of the cases. Sonographic findings in the prostate showed 33-100% improvement in four objective items. No side effects were observed in any case. Cernilton was effective for chronic prostatitis.


5. Treatment of Outflow Tract Obstruction due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia with the Pollen Extract, Cernilton, British Journal of Urology (1990), 66, 398-404.

Patients (#60) with outflow obstruction due to BPH were entered into a double-blind study to evaluate a six-month course of therapy. There was a statistically significant improvement with the pollen extract treated patients in 69% of the cases. Significant improvements were seen in residual urine and in the diameter of the prostate as determined by ultrasound examination.


6. Clinical Evaluation of Cernilton on Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy, Hinyokika Kiyo (1990), 36-4, 495-516.

A multiple center double blind study was performed with patients (#192). The pollen extract product was judged to be effective in 49% of the patients treated with the pollen extract product. No side effects of abnormalities were seen as a result of the treatment.


7. Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis and Prostatodynia with Pollen Extract , British Journal of Urology (1989), 64, 496-499.

Patients (#15) with chronic prostatitis of prostatodynia were entered into the study. In 13 patients there was either complete and lasting relief of symptoms of a marked improvement. The authors suggested that the pollen extracts had anti-inflammatory action. No toxicity was seen for the pollen extract treated patients.


LITERATURE REFERENCES (In chronological order.)

1. Nielsen, N., Gr”mmer, J., and Lunden R, (1955) Investigation on the Chemical Composition of Pollen from some Plants. Acta Chem. Scand, 9, 1100-1106.

2. J”nsson, G. (1961) Prostatitis and Pollen. Swedish Medical Journal, 58, 2487.

3. Ask-Upmark, E. (1963) The treatment of prostatitis. Zeitschrift f?r Urologia, 56.

4. Ask-Upmark, E. (1967) Prostatitis and its treatment. Acta Medica Scand, 181, 355-357

5. Ohkoshi, M., Kawamura, N. and Nagakubo, I. (1967) Clinical evaluation of Cernilton in chronic prostatitis. Japanese Journal of Clinical Urology, 21, 73.

6. Inada, T., Kitagawa, T. and Miyakawa, M. (1967) Use of Cernilton in patients with prostatic hypertrophy. Acta Urologica Japonica, 13, 466.

7. Kvanta, E. (1968) Sterols in Pollen. Acta Chem Scand, 22, 2161-2165.

8. Iton, R. (1968) Pharmacological Studies of Cernilton, Cernitin GBX and Cernitin T60. Journal of the Medical Society of Toho University, 15, 1-11.

9. Takeuchi, H., Yamauchi, A., Ueda, T. (1981) Quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of Cenilton on benign prostatic hypertophy. Acta Urol. Jap., 27, 317-326.

10. Ito, R., Ishii, M., Yamashita, S., et al. (1986) Cernitin pollen extract (Cernilton); anitprostatic hypertrophic action of Cernitin pollen-extract (Cernilton). Pharmacometrics, 31, 1-11.

11. Kimura, J., Kimura, I., Makase, K., (1986) Micturition activity of pollen extract: contractile effects on bladder and inhibitory effects on urethral smooth muscle of mouse and pig. Planta Med., 2, 148-151.

12. Becker, H. & Ebeling, L. (1988) Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with CerniltonRN: a placebo controlled, double blind study. Urologie (B), 28, 301-306.

13. Habib, F.K., Buck, A.C., Ross, M. (1990) In vitro evaluation of the pollen extract, Cernitin T-60, in the regulation of prostate cell growth. Br. J. Urol., 66, 393-397.

14. Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with Prostat. China Medical University Affiliated to the First Hospital, June, 1996.

15. Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and chonic non-bacterial prostatitis with Prostat. Shanghai Male Disease Medical Consultation and Service Center, June, 1996.


DMAE

Description

Dimethyl Amino Ethanol (DMAE) is one of the classic "Smart Nutrients" having been discussed in the original Smart Drugs & Nutrients book. DMAE occurs naturally in some foods notably fish.

Indeed, Dimethyl Amino Ethanol (DMAE) lends support to the old wives’ tale that fish is a great brain food. DMAE is normally present in small amounts in our brains, and is known for its mental stimulation and enhancement.

Because fish is naturally abundant in DMAE, a diet high in sardines and anchovies will provide higher than average levels of DMAE and choline to the brain, which serve as precursors (raw materials) for the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

Method of Action

Acetylcholine is responsible for conducting nerve impulses within the brain, and by accelerating the brain’s synthesis of this important neurotransmitter, DMAE may aid in improving memory and learning, as well as preventing loss of memory in adults.

Its antioxidant properties reduce lipofuscin deposits in the brain and skin.

Benefits

DMAE helps elevate mood, improve memory and learning, increase intelligence and physical energy, and extends the life span of laboratory animals.

It is used by many people for its mild, stimulant effect, yet DMAE also helps people to get to sleep. Many people report less fatigue in the day and sounder sleep at night, as well as needing less sleep, when taking DMAE.

Usage

Numerous scientific studies show that DMAE may help:


Antiaging effects:
· Extends the lifespan of laboratory animals.
· Hyperactivity treatment in children.
· Decreases fatigue in the day while providing for sounder sleep at night.
· Increases intelligence.
· Improves memory.
· Elevates mood and learning.
· Increase physical energy.
Sleep:
        ·make it easier for most people to get to sleep
·decrease fatigue in the day while providing for sounder sleep at night
·reduce the need for sleep
·enhance lucid dreams
· Provides a mild, safe tonic effect.
· Enhances "vigilance" (increases alertness and responsiveness)

Safety & Toxicity

Dosage: take 1 - 4 capsules per day

Advisable to start with 1 capsule and working your way up to 4 per day. It may take 2 weeks before the effects are felt.

Is it DMAE or DMAE Bitartrate?

Each capsule contains 340-mg of DMAE Bitartrate (the salt form of DMAE). The Bitartrate salt contains 35% active DMAE. Thus, if a label says 125-mg of DMAE Bitartrate, it really only has 45-mg DMAE in it.

When DMAE use is discontinued, no depression or let-down occurs.

It is generally recognized as safe for over-the-counter sales.

Research Briefs

Memory performance

Nicotine has been found to improve memory performance in a variety of tests, including the radial-arm maze. This improvement, together with the consistent finding of a decline in cortical nicotinic receptor concentration in Alzheimer's patients, has fueled the search for novel nicotinic ligands with therapeutic potential.

One of the 3 compounds tested, DMAE II (dimethylaminoethanol cyclohexyl carboxylate fumurate), produced significant improvements in working memory performance.

In the first experiment, this drug produced a biphasic dose-response curve with improved performance at the 20-mg/kg dose but not at 10 or 40 mg/kg. In a second round of DMAE II administration, the same rats showed a significant improvement with the 40-mg/kg dose.

In the second experiment, a new set of rats also showed a biphasic dose-response to DMAE II. The 20-mg/kg dose caused a significant improvement whereas the 40-mg/kg dose did not.

Nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) by itself caused a significant improvement in working memory performance. No additive effects of DMAE II with nicotine were seen. In fact, some attenuation of response was seen with the combination.

Like nicotine, the nicotinic ligand DMAE II causes an improvement in radial-arm mace choice accuracy. The lack of additivity with nicotine may have been to the partial agonist effects of DMAE II.

Levin ED et al., Effects of nicotinic dimethylaminoethyl esters on working memory performance of rats in the radial-arm maze. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 1995 Jun, 51:2-3, 369-73.

References:

Levin ED et al., Effects of nicotinic dimethylaminoethyl esters on working memory performance of rats in the radial-arm maze. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 1995 Jun, 51:2-3, 369-73.

Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)

Description:

Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are mild indigestible fruit sugars which serve to enhancer the microflora in the gut.

Although this soluble fiber occurs naturally in artichokes, bananas, barley, garlic, onions, shallots and wheat; it's difficult to obtain significantly high therapeutic amounts solely through diet. Food sources of fructo-oligosaccharides include (percent in fresh material): onion (2.8), garlic (1.0), burdock (3.6), rye (0.7), banana (0.3). Therefore, FOS supplements are often helpful on its own or combined with e.g. Panax ginseng.

Examples of oligosaccharides include:

Amylosaccharides (Mixed-Linkage)
1,5-a-L-Arabino-Oligosaccharides
Fructo-Oligosaccharides
1,4-?-D-Galacto-Oligosaccharides
1,4-?-D-Manno-Oligosaccharides
Galacto-Manno-Oligosaccharides
Raffinose-Series Oligosaccharides
1,4-B-D-Xylo-Oligosaccharides

Method of Action:

Because they are not digested, fructo-oligosaccharides pass intact into the colon, where they are used by certain "friendly" bacteria. Ingesting fructo-oligosaccharides may be an even more effective method of altering the intestinal flora for some individuals, than administering acidophilus and other "probiotics".

Benefits:

Fructo-oligosaccharides, basically, promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the digestive tract.

Almost as a side-effect, they impart sweetness without adding calories. They were originally used in Japan as a low-calorie sweetener.

Potentially, of greater significance, may be the ability of fructo-oligosaccharides to lower colonic pH which could have implications for the prevention of colon cancer.

Usage

FOS is accepted as a supplement, often combined with other products, to achieve a better balance within the microflora of the intestinal tract.

At an early stage of intervention, problems could be gastro-intestinal upsets, including diarrhea and constipation, or candida; while, at later stages, such conditions may have become symptoms of more serious disease processes, including colon cancer.

Safety & Toxicity

FOS is a food derivative, generally recognized as safe and available over-the-counter as food and supplement products.

Abstracts

Carcinogenesis

Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are a mixture of oligosaccharides consisting of glucose linked to fructose units. They are not digested in the human small intestine but fermented in the colon, where they could specifically promote the growth of some species of the indigenous microflora, especially bifidobacteria.

Assessed the potential involvement of FOS in colonic carcinogenesis.

Volunteers received 12.5 g/day FOS or placebo (saccharose) in 3 oral doses. Stools were regularly collected and analyzed. FOS ingestion led to an increase in fecal bifidobacterial counts [7.9 +/- 0.5 to 9.1 +/- 0.3 (SE) log colony-forming units/g wet wt] and beta-fructosidase activity (9.6 +/- 1.9 to 13.8 +/- 1.9 IU/g dry wt).

In contrast, FOS ingestion had no significant effect on fecal total anaerobes, pH, the activities of nitroreductase, azoreductase, and beta-glucuronidase, and the concentrations of bile acids and neutral sterols.

Ingestion of FOS, at a clinically tolerated dose of 12.5 g/day, led to an increase in colonic bifidobacteria. This effect was not associated in healthy humans with beneficial changes in various factors potentially involved in the pathogenesis of colonic cancer.

Bouhnik Y et al., Effects of fructo-oligosaccharides ingestion on fecal bifidobacteria and selected metabolic indexes of colon carcinogenesis in healthy humans. Nutr Cancer, 1996, 26:1, 21-9.

Colon

Evaluated the fate of 2 different doses of fructo-oligosaccharides (5 and 15 g/d) versus glucose in the intestine of healthy men.

Breath and fecal samples were collected. There was a clear gaseous response to the consumption of fructo-oligosaccharides. The highest dose significantly increased 24 h integrated excretion of breath H2. Breath H2 excretion after ingestion of 5 g fructo-oligosaccharides was higher than control, but did not reach significance.

Fecal pH did not change. No changes in faecal weight were observed. No fructo-oligosaccharides were recovered in feces.

Fructo-oligosaccharides added to the diet of young Western subjects are fully metabolized in the large intestine. The level of fermentation seems to be dose-dependent.

Alles MS et al., Fate of fructo-oligosaccharides in the human intestine. Br J Nutr, 1996 Aug, 76:2, 211-21.

Fecal flora

Compared the effects of 3 oligosaccharides [(beta-fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), beta-galacto-oligosaccharides (TOS) and alpha-gluco-oligosaccharides (GOS)] on intestinal bacterial metabolism; using germ-free rats inoculated with a human fecal flora.

The animals were fed on either a control diet or diets containing 40 g/kg of GOS, FOS or TOS. FOS and TOS were the preferred growth substrates for Bifidobacteria which increased in number by 2 log values in feces of rats when compared with rats fed on GOS or control diets.

Compared with the control group, FOS and TOS diets led to a significant increase in H2 and CH4 excretion; the GOS diet increased only CH4. Analysis of cecal contents revealed a decrease in pH for all diets compared with controls. Total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration increased significantly in all groups, but the SCFA profile differed between treatment groups.

The 3 oligosaccharides studied had different effects which may be linked to their chemical structure. Some of these effects may be beneficial to human health.

Djouzi Z & Andrieux C: Compared effects of three oligosaccharides on metabolism of intestinal microflora in rats inoculated with a human faecal flora. Br J Nutr, 1997 Aug, 78:2, 313-24.

Intestinal flora

Fructo-oligosaccharides are widely distributed in plants such as onions,
asparagus, wheat etc., and obtained from sucrose by the action of
fructosyltransferase. They are not hydrolyzed by human digestive enzymes, but
are utilized by intestinal bacteria such as bifidobacteria. Bacteroides fragilis
group, peptostreptococci and klebsiellae.

Administration of 8 g/day of fructo-oligosaccharides for eight weeks to 23 patients (mean age, 73 years) increased the bifidobacteria content of the feces by about 10-fold and reduced the pH of the stool by about 0.3 units. The consistency of the stool was also improved in some cases. The number of bifidobacteria returned toward baseline values 8 days after fructo-oligosaccharide treatment was discontinued.

Mitsuoka T, et al. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal microflora. Die Nahrung 1987;31:427-436.

References:

Alles MS et al., Fate of fructo-oligosaccharides in the human intestine. Br J Nutr, 1996 Aug, 76:2, 211-21.

Bouhnik Y et al., Effects of fructo-oligosaccharides ingestion on fecal bifidobacteria and selected metabolic indexes of colon carcinogenesis in healthy humans. Nutr Cancer, 1996, 26:1, 21-9.

Djouzi Z & Andrieux C: Compared effects of three oligosaccharides on metabolism of intestinal microflora in rats inoculated with a human faecal flora. Br J Nutr, 1997 Aug, 78:2, 313-24.

K.H. Jung, J.W. Yun, K.R. Kang, J.Y. Lim and J.H. Lee: Mathematical model for enzymatic production of fructo-oligosaccahrides from sucrose. Enzyme Microb. Technol., 11, 491-494 (1989).

J.W. Yun, K.H. Jung, J.W. Oh and J.H. Lee: Semibatch production of fructo-oligosaccharides from sucrose by immobilized cells of Aureobasidium pullulans. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 24/25, 299-308 (1990).

Jong Won Yun and Seung Koo Song: Continuous production of fructooligosaccharides using fructosyltransferase immobilized on ion exchange resin. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 1(1) 18-21 (1996).

J.W. Yun and D.H. Kim: A comparative study of mannitol production by two lactic acid bacteria. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 85 (2) In press (1998).

Park, J.P., Kim, D.H., Kim, D.S., and Yun, J.W.: Enzymatic production of inulo-oligosaccharides from chicory juice. Biotechnol. Lett., In press (1998).

Jong Won Yun and Seung Koo Song: Enzymatic production of fructooligosaccharides from sucrose. Methods in Biotechnology - Carbohydrate biotechnology (C.Bucke ed.) The Humana Press Inc., In press (1998).

Jong Won Yun and Dong Hyun Kim: Enzymatic production of inulo-oligosaccharides from inulin. Methods in Biotechnology-Carbohydrate Biotechnology (C.Bucke ed.) The Humana Press Inc., In press (1998).

Mitsuoka T et al., Effect of fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal microflora. Nahrung (1987) 31(5-6):427-36.

Mitsuoka, T. "Intestinal flora and aging." Nut Rev, 50: 439-46, 1992.

5-HTP

Description:

5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is the direct precursor to serotonin; indeed the terms 5-hydroxytryptamine and serotonin, are synonymous. 5-HTP is derived commercially from the seeds of the Griffonia simplicifolia, a West African medicinal plant.

Usage:

5-HTP 50 mg. 1 a day.

5-HTP is taken among other things to Improve Mood, as a Treatment for Anxiety, and beneficial in Weight loss.

Scientific studies from around the world have shown 5-HTP to, in addition to the treatment of Depression, be effective in:

· Autism
· Relieving Anxiety
· Suppressing Appetite
· Cognitive Enhancement
· Reduction of the rate of Heart Disease by Lowering Anxiety and Depression.
· Hyperactivity disorders
· Relief From and Prevention of Migraine Headaches
· Rett syndrome
· Relieving symptoms of Seasonal Affective Disorder
· Enhancing Sleep

Method of Action:

5-HTP may be used in relation to St. John's Wort and SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) like PROZAC.

SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) are the class of prescription drugs including PROZAC. SSRIs work by increasing the availability of serotonin in synapses (junctions between neurons) by blocking their reuptake.

5-HTP (5-hydroxytriptophan) works by increasing the cell’s output of serotonin.

St. John’s Wort (like SSRIs) increases the availability of serotonin in synapses (junctions between neurons) by blocking their reuptake but also increases the availability of norepinephrine, which increases energy and alertness and dopamine, which increases the feeling of well-being.

Research Briefs:

Depression

In a double blind, multi-center controlled study using patients diagnosed with depression, after week 6, both the patients taking 100 mg. 5-HTP 3 times per day and those taking 150 mg. fluvoxamine (an SSRI) 3 times per day, had equal numbers showing about 50% improvement with 5-HTP proving to be better tolerated than the SSRI and having about a 11% lower failure rate than the SSRI group.

Poldinger, W: A functional-dimensional approach to depression: serotonin deficiency as a target syndrome in a comparison of 5-hydroxytriptophan (5-HTP) and fluvoxamine. Psychopathology. 1991,24:53-81)

Neurotransmitter

Of the chemical neurotransmitter substances, serotonin is perhaps the most implicated in the etiology or treatment of various disorders, particularly those of the central nervous system, including anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, stroke, obesity, pain, hypertension, vascular disorders, migraine, and nausea.

Bore, RF. Serotonin: The Neurotransmitter for the 90’s. Drug Topics. 1994, October 10:108.

Rett syndrome and autism

The features of sleep parameters in the Rett syndrome were compared with those in early infantile autism (EIA) and hereditary progressive dystonia with marked diurnal fluctuation (HPD).

Abnormalities of the sleep-wakefulness cycle were observed in the Rett syndrome and EIA, but in the latter these abnormalities became inapparent with age and improved markedly by correcting the environmental condition and completely by 5-HTP.

Segawa M & Nomura Y: Polysomnography in the Rett syndrome. Brain Dev, 1992 May, 14 Suppl:, S46-54.

Scoliosis

To find if the serotonin may have some role in the cause of treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Gave daily intraperitoneal injections of 5-hydroxy-tryptophan, a precursor of serotonin, which can pass through the blood-brain barrier versus control in pinealectomized chickens.

One of the causes of idiopathic scoliosis is thought to be the disruption of postural reflex. Serotonin has been proposed to have a crucial role in maintaining normal postural muscle tone or postural equilibrium.

Scoliosis developed in all 40 pinealectomized chickens (control), whereas only 28 chickens in the 5-hydroxytryptophan-treated group (6 in severe, 22 in mild) developed scoliosis. The remaining 12 chickens grew up with normal spines. Most chickens with mild scoliosis did not have curve progression but continued to have wedged vertebrae.

Serotonin deficit secondary to a defect of melatonin may have disturbed postural muscle tone or postural equilibrium resulting in scoliosis in pinealectomized chicken. Prevention from the development of scoliosis or its progression in chickens treated with 5-hydroxytryptophan suggests that serotonin may have potential therapeutic value.

Machida M et al., Role of serotonin for scoliotic deformity in pinealectomized chicken. Spine, 1997 Jun, 22:12, 1297-301.

References:

Bore, RF. Serotonin: The Neurotransmitter for the 90’s. Drug Topics. 1994, October 10:108.

Cioli V et al., A comparative pharmacological study of trazodone, etoperidone and 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine. Pharmacol Res Commun, 1984 Jan, 16:1, 85-100.

Iacono RP et al., Concentrations of indoleamine metabolic intermediates in the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of advanced Parkinson's patients with severe postural instability and gait disorders. J Neural Transm, 1997, 104:4-5, 451-9.

Machida M et al., Role of serotonin for scoliotic deformity in pinealectomized chicken. Spine, 1997 Jun, 22:12, 1297-301.

Poldinger, W: A functional-dimensional approach to depression: serotonin deficiency as a target syndrome in a comparison of 5-hydroxytriptophan (5-HTP) and fluvoxamine. Psychopathology. 1991,24:53-81)

Segawa M & Nomura Y: Polysomnography in the Rett syndrome. Brain Dev, 1992 May, 14 Suppl:, S46-54.

Kudzu

Description:

Kudzu is basically a climbing vine. It was introduced to the United States at the turn of the century from Japan. Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was extensively planted throughout much of the southeast as an ornamental plant, for a forage crop, and most importantly for erosion control. Kudzu's rapid growth of up to several feet a day, made it ideal for stabilizing ditches, gullies and steep slopes.

However, this prolific growth facilitated the spread of kudzu throughout the southeast and into Ohio. Kudzu, took on the status of a weed

Sometimes the root is used, in which case the terminology is: puerariae radix.

Method of Action:

Kudzu appears to work via its isoflavonoids, chief of which is daidzin.

Usage:

Kudzu has made headlines in a positive manner, under nutritional news, rather than agriculture, or gardening woes. Specifically, kudzu appears to have withstood scientific investigations into its traditional usage to overcome alcohol problems.

Safety & Toxicity:

For centuries in Japan and China people have used it with confidence as a dietary supplement, usually as an herbal tea. Loosely translated, the Chinese name for this tea means "drunkenness dispeller." The Northern Chinese consume it to sober up after drinking alcohol and to relieve hangovers.

In supplement form kudzu is made available as a combination of 1 mg of daidzin and 1 mg hypericin per capsule. Take one capsule (t.i.d.) three times daily with a meal.

Animal experiments are encouraging as well. It seems that the rats do not develop tolerance to the compound; there is no change in its reduction of alcohol drinking after repeated doses. Also important is the finding that the compound does not affect how the rats metabolize alcohol.

Discussion:

During his regular trips to China, David Lee, an organic chemist at Research Triangle Institute, noticed that many households he visited kept an herbal tea on hand-a mixture of seven different Chinese herbs, including the kudzu plant.

In 1991, Lee and scientists at Shin-Yang University in China began testing an herbal compound derived from this tea using rats that had been injected with alcohol. They found that it improved the rats’ motor coordination, or made them less "drunk."

Meanwhile, Amir Rezvani and David Overstreet, both research associate professors of psychiatry at UNC-CH's Skipper Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, had been working with rats that voluntarily drink a significant amount of alcohol. In 1989 Rezvani had discovered this alcohol-preferring quality in Fawn-Hooded rats, named for the orangish-tan patches on their heads and shoulders. Later they began working with Finnish and P-rats, strains of rats that have been selectively bred to prefer alcohol over water.

Researchers at Harvard Medical School injected 71 golden Syrian hamsters, who by nature have an unusual craving for alcohol, with daidzin, kudzu's active ingredient. The hamsters injected with daidzin immediately cut back on their alcohol consumption and began to drink more water.

Abstracts:

Daidzin

The dose effect of pure daidzin on the suppression of ethanol intake in Syrian golden hamsters was compared with that of crude daidzin contained in a methanol extract of Radix puerariae (RP).

Apparently the antidipsotropic activity of the RP extract cannot be accounted for solely by its daidzin content (22 mg/g). In addition to daidzin, 6 other isoflavones were identified in the RP extract and quantified:
puerarin (160 mg per g of extract),
genistin (3.7 mg/g),
daidzein (2.6 mg/g),
daidzein-4',7-diglucoside (1.2 mg/g),
genistein (0.2 mg/g), and
formononetin (0.16 mg/g).

None of these, administered either alone or combined, contributes in any significant way to the antidipsotropic activity of the extract.

The crude extract daidzin has approximately 10 times greater bioavailability than the pure compound.

Results show that (i) daidzin is the major active principle in methanol extracts of RP, and (ii) additional constituents in the methanol extract of RP assist uptake of daidzin in golden hamsters.

Keung WM et al., Potentiation of the bioavailability of daidzin by an extract of Radix puerariae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1996 Apr, 93:9, 4284-8.

Alcohol preference

The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lobata, has long been used in China to lessen alcohol intoxication. We have previously shown that daidzin, one of the major components from this plant extract, is efficacious in lowering blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by alcohol ingestion.

Tested the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin and two other major isoflavonoids, daidzein and puerarin, from Pueraria lobata administered by the oral route.

All three isoflavonoid compounds were effective in suppressing voluntary alcohol consumption by the P rats. When given orally to P rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, daidzein, daidzin, and puerarin decreased ethanol intake by 75%, 50%, and 40%, respectively.

The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total fluid volume consumed daily remained unchanged. The effects of these isoflavonoid compounds on alcohol and water intake were reversible. Suppression of alcohol consumption was evident after 1 day of administration and became maximal after 2 days. Similarly, alcohol preference returned to baseline levels 2 days after discontinuation of the isoflavonoids.

Rats receiving the herbal extracts ate the same amounts of food as control animals, and they gained weight normally during the experiments.

Data demonstrate that isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata is effective in suppressing the appetite for alcohol when taken orally, raising the possibility that other constituents of edible plants may exert similar and more potent actions.

Lin RC et al., Isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata suppress alcohol preference in a pharmacogenetic rat model of alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 1996 Jun, 20:4, 659-63.

Glycosides

From Puerariae Radix, the root of Pueraria lobata (Leguminosae), six new oleanene-type triterpene glycosides, called kudzusaponins A1 (1), A2 (2), Ar (3), SA4 (5), and SB1 (6) were isolated together with kudzusaponin A3 (7), soyasaponins SA3 (8), and I (9).

Arao T et al., Oleanene-type triterpene glycosides from puerariae radix. IV. Six new saponins from Pueraria lobata. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 1997 Feb, 45:2, 362-6.

References:

Arao T et al., Oleanene-type triterpene glycosides from puerariae radix. IV. Six new saponins from Pueraria lobata. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 1997 Feb, 45:2, 362-6.

Keung WM et al., Potentiation of the bioavailability of daidzin by an extract of Radix puerariae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1996 Apr, 93:9, 4284-8.

Lin RC et al., Isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata suppress alcohol preference in a pharmacogenetic rat model of alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 1996 Jun, 20:4, 659-63.

Rezvani and Overstreet (uncited)

Spivey, A: Sobering Effects from the Lowly Kudzu. Endeavors Magazine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, April 1996.

Malic acid

Description:

Malic Acid [Hydroxysuccinic acid, Hydroxy-1,4-butanedioic acid] is a pure crystalline version of a fruit acid found in high amounts in apples and other fruits. Malic acid gives fruits that naturally tart flavor.

Malic acid as a commercial product is a white crystalline powder produced by hydration of maleic and fumaric acids. Compared to the naturally occurring Malic acid which is levorotatory (L); the synthesized product is a racemic mixture of D- and L- isomers. Introduced to the food industry in 1922, it became commercially available in 1963.

Malic acid contains no proteins, fats, fiber, starches, vitamins, minerals, preservatives, colors, antioxidants or milk products.

Calcium 0.2 mg/100g
Iron 0.1 mg/100g
Sodium 0.1 mg/100g

Usage:

Natural healers might traditionally recommend drinking organic apple juice in order to derive the benefits from malic acid.

As a dietary supplement, (for adults only. ) or for flavor enhancement, add 1/4 teaspoon to the beverage of your choice.

Malic acid has also been produced in pill form, usually in tandem with magnesium, since the primary efficacy appears to be for fibromyalgia and related syndromes (which could include: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Epstein Barr Virus etc.)

Malic acid enhances flavors and masks undesirable tastes and/or odors of medicinal remedies like - throat lozenges, cough syrups, carbonated calcium supplements, or effervescent powdered medicines and may have antimicrobial effects.

Acid-Based Facial Products

Malic acid, an alpha hydroxy fruit acid, can be used in skin care products to rejuvenate and improve skin conditions.

Nutritional Supplements

In liquid or dry carbonated calcium supplements, Malic acid adds a tart and fruity flavour while controlling the pH.

One product to have undergone clinical trials is a combination of malic acid, magnesium and vitamin B2 (riboflavin); all important for energy generation.

Method of Action:

Malic acid is formed in metabolic cycles in the cells of plants and animals, including humans. For instance, in both the KREB (citric acid) and glyoxalate cycles it provides the cells with energy and carbon skeletons for the formation of amino acids. Other cycles which involve Malic acid are the urea cycle and the dicarboxylate shunt of the liver. A relatively large amount of Malic acid is produced and broken down in the human body every day.

As Malic acid stimulates saliva flow, it can be used in tooth-cleaning preparations and mouthwashes. Germicidal compounds can be mixed with Malic acid to be used in soaps, mouthwashes, and toothpaste, etc.

Safety & Toxicity:

2 commercial tablets (Magnesium Malate Forte ) contains:

·500 mg Malic acid
·75 mg Magnesium (as hydroxide)
·50 mg Magnesium (as citrate)
·10 mg Riboflavin (vit. B2)

Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement, one (1) or 2 tablets two or three times per day with meals, or as directed by a health practitioner.


The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers Malic acid a GRAS (General Recognized As Safe) direct human food ingredient under 21 CFR 184,1069.22 This permits the use of Malic acid in all non-standardized foods.

The Health Protection Branch of Health Canada, also allows the use of Malic acid in all non-standardized foods.

The Italian Ministry of Health Decree No. 525, 199223 updated the use of additives in foods giving permitted concentrations for DL-Malic acid.

The European Community's Directive on Food Additives other than Colours and Sweeteners, No. 95/2/EG (20 Feb. 1995) permits Malic acid (E296) and its salts (E350, E351, E352) to be added to all foods without standards of identity.

The FAO/WHO24 permits Malic acid and its salts in specified foods.

Malic acid is also accepted for use in foods and beverages in the United Kingdom, Germany, Brazil, Mexico, Norway, South Africa, India, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, Australia and many other countries.

Discussion:

Fibromyalgia (FM) has been associated with irritable bowel syndrome, tension headache, mitral valve prolapse, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Numerous treatment modalities have been attempted to treat patients with FM, but results have usually been poor.

Evidence suggests that FM results from local hypoxia in the muscles. Under hypoxic conditions there is an increased demand and utilization of malic acid, and this demand is normally met by increasing the synthesis of malic acid through gluconeogenesis and muscle protein breakdown. This ultimately results in muscle breakdown and damage, which produces the characteristic muscle pain of FM.

Malic acid is important to the production of energy in the body during both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. During anaerobic conditions, malic acid reverses hypoxia’s inhibition of glycolysis and energy production, thereby reversing the negative effect of the relative hypoxia that has been found in FM patients.

Malic acid may be of benefit to healthy individuals interested in maximizing their energy production during exercise, as well as those with FM.

The administration of malic acid to rats has been shown to elevate mitochondrial malate and increase mitochondrial respiration and energy production. Surprisingly, relatively small amounts of exogenous malic acid were required to increase mitochondrial energy production and ATP formation.

Malic acid supplements have been examined for their effects on FM. Subjective improvement in pain was observed within 48 hours of supplementation with 1,200 - 2,400 milligrams of malic acid, and this improvement was lost following the discontinuation of malic acid for 48 hours.

While these studies also used magnesium supplements, due to the fact that magnesium is often low in FM patients, the rapid improvement following malic acid, as well as the rapid deterioration after discontinuation, suggests that malic acid is the most important component.

Additionally, many hypoxia related conditions, such as respiratory and circulatory insufficiency, are associated with deficient energy production. Therefore, malic acid supplements may be of benefit in these conditions. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome has also been found to be associated with FM, and malic acid supplementation may be of use in improving energy production in this condition as well.

Research briefs:

Fibromyalgia

Studied the efficacy and safety of Super Malic, a proprietary tablet containing malic acid (200 mg) and magnesium (50 mg), in treatment of primary fibromyalgia syndrome (FM).

No clear treatment effect attributable to Super Malic was seen in the blinded, fixed low dose trial. With dose escalation and a longer duration of treatment in the open label trial, significant reductions in the severity of all 3 primary pain/tenderness measures were obtained without limiting risks.

Data suggest that Super Malic is safe and may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with FM. Future placebo-controlled studies should utilize up to 6 tablets of Super Malic bid and continue therapy for at least 2 months.

Russell IJ et al., Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with Super Malic: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover pilot study. J Rheumatol, 1995 May, 22:5, 953-8.

References:

G.E. Abraham and J.D. Flechas, J of Nutr Medicine 1992; 3: 49-59.

Russell IJ et al., Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with Super Malic: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover pilot study. J Rheumatol, 1995 May, 22:5, 953-8.

Olive Leaf

Description:

Olive Leaf Extract is obtained from specific parts of the olive tree (Olea europaea).

While Olive Leaf Extract in capsule form is new, the knowledge of the medicinal properties of the tree (Olea europaea) date back to the early 1800's where it was used in liquid form as a very effective treatment for malarial infections.

In the early 1900's, a bitter compound was found in the leaves of certain olive trees called "Oleuropein." This compound was determined to be part of the olive tree's powerful disease resistant structure.

In 1962, an Itilian resercher recorded oleuropein had the ability to lower blood pressure in animals. Other European researchers validated the claim and found it to increase blood flow in the coronary arteries, relieve arrhythmias and prevent intestinal muscle spasms.

Method of Action:

The search began for the chemical agent within oleuropein that would be the most important medically. A Dutch researcher found it. The chemical was elenolic acid. Further European research determined this compound to have strong bacteriocidal capabilities.

In the late 1960's and early 70's The Upjohn Companies’ test studies were published for a new multifunctional monoterpene which they had isolated from various parts of the olive tree. The compound was called calcium elenolate, a crystalline salt form of elenolic acid. It was found to be virucidal against all viruses for which it was tested.

It is considered to be: anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-bacteria and anti-oxidant.

Safety & Toxicity:

A safety study on calcium elenolate was laboratory tested with animals and published by The Upjohn Company in 1970 (e). The study concluded that even in doses several hundred times higher than recommended, no toxic or other adverse side effects appeared.

No known studies have been conducted with regards to pregnancy or nursing mothers. Also no known studies of interactions between Original Olive Leaf Extract and other pharmaceuticals have been performed.

This phytochemical extract is not only safe, but is also a nontoxic immune system builder.

Usage:

While it has many aspects in common with pine bark extracts, for example, Olive Leaf has gained attention primarily for its anti-viral properties, with respect to: AIDS, Herpes and influenza, for example.

One capsule 4 times a day. Best times are one-half hour or more before breakfast, 11am, 3 pm and one hour after the evening meal. Eden should be taken on an empty stomach by itself with distilled or reverse osmosis water and without any other dietary supplements.

Abstracts:

Anti-complementary activity

From extracts of olive (Olea europaea L., Oleaceae) leaves showing anti-complementary activity, the flavonoids apigenin, apigenin-4'-O-rhamnosylglucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, luteolin-4'-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, chrysoeriol, chrysoeriol-7-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside were isolated. Major isolated constituents strongly inhibited the classical pathway of the complement system.

Pieroni A et al., In vitro anti-complementary activity of flavonoids from olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves. Pharmazie, 1996 Oct, 51:10, 765-8.

Diabetes

Use of herbal remedies from medicinal plants (bush medicines) was studied in 622 people with diabetes mellitus attending 17 government health centers on the island of Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. Bush medicines were used by 42% of patients surveyed and were used for diabetes by 24%.

Patients taking bush medicines mentioned 103 different plants used in remedies. Among the 12 most frequently mentioned, caraili, aloes, olive-bush, and seed-under-leaf were preferentially used for diabetes.

Mahabir D & Gulliford MC: Use of medicinal plants for diabetes in Trinidad and Tobago. Rev Panam Salud Publica, 1997 Mar, 1:3, 174-9.


Medical References on the Olive Leaf (Olea Europaea)

Cruess WV, and Alsberg CL, The bitter glucoside of the olive. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 1934; 56:2115-7.

Gariboldi P et al, Secoiridoids from olea europaea. Phytochem., 1986; 25(4) 865-69.

Heinze JE et al, Specificity of the antiviral agent calcium elenolate. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 1975: 8(4), 421-25.

Hirschman SZ, Inactivation of DNA polymerases of Murine Leukaemia viruses by calcium elenolate. Nature New Biology, 1972; 238:277-79.

Juven B et al, Studies on the mechanism of the antimicrobial action of oleuropein. J. Appi. Bad., 1972; 35:559-67.

Kubo I et al, A multichemical defense mechanism of bitter olive olea europaea (Oleaceae) - Is oleuropein a phytoalexin precursor? J. Chem. Ecol 1985; 11(2): 251-63.

Mahabir D & Gulliford MC: Use of medicinal plants for diabetes in Trinidad and Tobago. Rev Panam Salud Publica, 1997 Mar, 1:3, 174-9.

Panizzi L et al, The constitution of oleuropein, a bitter glucoside of the olive with hypotensive action. Gazz. Chim. Ital; 1960; 90:1449-85.

Petkov V and Manolov P, Pharmacological analysis of the iridoid oleuropein. Drug Res., 1972; 22(9): 1476-86.

Pieroni A et al., In vitro anti-complementary activity of flavonoids from olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves. Pharmazie, 1996 Oct, 51:10, 765-8.

Renis HE, In vitro antiviral activity of calcium elenolate. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 1970; 167-72.

Samuelsson G, The blood pressure lowering factor in leaves of Olea Europaea. Farmacevtisk Revy, 1951; 15: 229-39.

Soret MG, Antiviral activity of calcium elenolate on parainfluenza infection of hamsters. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 1970:160-66.

Veer WLC et al, A compound isolated from olea europaea. Recueil, 1957; 76: 839-40.
Elliott GA et al, Preliminary studies with calcium elenolate, an antiviral agent. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 1970:173-76.