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Luteolin

Luteolin

Description

Luteolin (3?,4?,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid widely distributed in the plant kingdom. It was isolated e.g. from Reseda luteola L., Achillea millefolium L., Chamomillae requtita , Cynara scolymus, Thymus vulgaris, Limonium sinuatum, Vitex rotundifolia, Erigeron canadensis L. , Sophora angustifolia, Satureja obovata, Lonicera japonica. It was also found in Propolis, the bee glue.
Chemically, Luteolin is a yellow microcrystalline powder. It is sparingly soluble in water, but soluble in alkali.

Benefits

Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics

Preliminary studies in rabbits and rats using [3H]-luteolin and fluorescence spectrophotometry examined the absorption, metabolism and excretion of luteolin.
Metabolism and Absorption
·        In rats orally administered [3H]-luteolin was rapidly absorbed and distributed in various tissues, with highest concentrations in liver and kidney. A comparison of the concentration-time curve of protocatechuic acid (PCA) with that of luteolin indicates that PCA is a product of luteolin.
·        In order to know whether Luteolin was absorbed by the small intestine, perfusion of the jejunum with Luteolin was performed. The HPLC analysis of the serosal fluid followed by a treatment with ?-glucoronidase enabled to know if Luteolin was absorbed and in which form (free or as glucoronide conjugates). The comparative absorption of flavonoids and their glycosides across the jejunum and ileum in a rat intestinal model showed that measured levels of luteolin as aglycone were small relative to the amount of total luteolin glucoronides recovered. Treatment with ?-glucuronidase indicated the presence of at least six different glucuronides.
Excretion
·        Luteolin was rapidly removed from the blood via the kidney and the liver. 12h-urinary excretion in rabbits was 37.7% of the total i. v. dose. In rats the 6h-biliary excretion was about 11.2% of the total i. v. dose.

Safety

Toxicity of Luteolin
General
Luteolin is considered nontoxic
·        The determination of LD50 in various animals did not show acute toxicity
Mutagenicity of Luteolin
General
Luteolin is considered non-mutagenic
·        Luteolin shows no mutagenicity in the Ames test with or without activation.

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Grateful acknowledgement to Tom Leyman and Synorx for their groundbreaking research in Lueolin research.