An extensive survey for Chlorella viruses was done across Japan and in nine countries of Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Of 150 fresh-water samples collected from 77 distinct areas in Japan, 29 showed plaques on a lawn of Chlorella sp. (strain NC64A). Typically, 10 to 1000 PFU/ml of viruses were present at sampling sites located throughout Japan. Viruses were also detected in two samples from Brazil and China but not from other countries where water samples were screened.
Physiological and ecological factors affecting virus distribution are discussed.
Widespread distribution of Chlorella viruses in Japan. Yamada-T; Shimomae-A; Furukawa-S; Takehara-J. Biosci-Biotechnol-Biochem. 1993 May; 57(5): 733-9.
Yamada-T. etal: Widespread distribution of Chlorella viruses in Japan. Biosci-Biotechnol-Biochem. 1993 May; 57(5): 733-9.
Immune Response (Broilers)
Only increased the live weight of experimental broilers at the end of the second week of life. Enhanced the phagocytic activity and lymphatic tissue development.
Kotrbacek-V; Halouzka-R; Jurajda-V; Knotkova-Z; Filka-J: Increased "immune" response in broilers after administration of natural food supplements. Vet-Med-Praha. 1994; 39(6): 321-8.
The unicellular green alga "Chlorella vulgaris" ("strain" C-169) has a small genome (38.8 Mb) consisting of 16 chromosomes, which can be easily separated by CHEF gel electrophoresis.
Higashiyama-T; Maki-S; Yamada-T.: Molecular organization of "Chlorella" vulgaris chromosome I: presence of telomeric repeats that are conserved in higher plants. Mol-Gen-Genet. 1995 Jan 6; 246(1): 29-36
The shortage of "protein" foods in various areas of the world is of increasing concern. Means of producing protein-rich foods in areas of shortage are being sought.
Green algae contain a high percentage of protein, minerals and vitamins.
Oswald (1959) developed a process by which algae can be grown in sewage at an estimated cost of 3-5 c per pound. Chlorella yields an average of about 10.884 metric tons of protein/acre a year - more than tenfold the rate of soybeans.
Incorporating algal powders into such foods as bread, ice cream, noodles, "soups", and similar staples increases their protein and vitamin content by 20% in bread and noodles and by 30% in ice cream. The resulting products were found to be palatable.
The baked products had percentages of protein ranging from 9.8 to 15.2/100 g of product as compared with 22.0-29.2 in the boiled mixtures.
Amounts above 100 g of algae/day caused severe "gastrointestinal" disrurbances. (This may have been due to the excessive heat treatment of the algae : 160'C for 2 hours against possible intake of pathogens).
Dam-R; Lee-S; Fry-"PC"; Fox-H. Utilization of algae as a protein source for humans. J. "Nutrition" 1965,86: 376-82.
During the past several years interest in algae is widespread. True digestibility has been reported to be: 75% for blanched algae and 86% for "methanol" extracted algae. (The present study found 58% for "ethanol" extracted "Chlorella pyrenoidosa".)] The residual smell and taste of the decolorized Chlorella were intolerable and impaired appetite. Subjects tolerated up to 100 g/day quite well, but acute toxicity symptoms developed at 200- and 500 g levels.
Human subjects were capable of consuming algae as the principal source of protein in the diet for a 20-day "period" without ill effect.
Cook-BB; Lau-EW; Bailey-BM.: The protein quality of waste-grown green algae. J Nutrition 1963,81:23-9.
During the past several years interest in algae is widespread. "True digestibility" has been reported to be 83% [ or, other studies: 75% for blanched algae and 86% for methanol extracted algae. (The present study found 58% for ethanol extracted Chlorella pyrenoidosa.)] The residual smell and taste of the decolorized Chlorella were intolerable and impaired appetite. Subjects tolerated up to 100 g/day quite well, but acute toxicity symptoms developed at 200- and 500 g levels.
Human subjects were capable of consuming algae as the principal source of protein in the diet for a 20-day period without ill effect.
Dam-R; Lee-S; Fry-PC; Fox-H. Utilization of algae as a protein source for humans. J. Nutrition 1965,86: 376-82.
Fibromyalgia & Hypertension
Fibromyalgia and Hypertension
Chlorella supplements may reduce the suffering that accompanies chronic illnesses like fibromyalgia, hypertension, and ulcerative colitis, according to this double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled study. The test subjects, including 55 patients with fibromyalgia, 33 with hypertension, and 9 with ulcerative colitis, took ten grams of pure chlorella in tablet form and 100 mL of a chlorella extract solution each day for two or three months. Results of the study were measured in different ways for each type of health condition: pain and quality of life assessments were made for fibromyalgia patients, diastolic blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels were measured in hypertensive patients, and determination of state of disease using the Disease Activity Index was performed on ulcerative colitis patients. Chlorella supplementation was correlated with a reduction in high blood pressure, lowered serum lipid levels, faster wound healing, and enhanced immune functions.
Merchant RE, Andre CA: A review of recent clinical trials of the nutritional supplement Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the treatment of fibromyalgia, hypertension, and ulcerative colitis, Altern Ther Health Med 2001 May-Jun;7(3):79-91
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