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Antioxidant (Rutin)


A prooxidant drug, primaquine (PQ) was used to produce oxidative stress in human red blood cells (RBC) in vitro. Rutin, a plant flavonoid, did not prevent PQ-induced cell lysis but protected against hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation inside RBC.

The present results demonstrate new antioxidant properties of rutin that may be useful in diminishing oxidative damage to pathological red blood cells.

Grinberg-LN; Rachmilewitz-EA; Newmark-H: Protective effects of rutin against hemoglobin oxidation. Biochem-Pharmacol. 1994 Aug 17; 48(4): 643-9

Cancer & Rutin


The effect of dietary supplementation of flavonoidal compounds such as quercetin, rutin, luteolin and (+)-catechin on the incidence of fibrosarcoma induced by 20-methylcholanthrene (20-MC) in male Swiss albino mice was observed. Subcutaneous injection of 20-MC produced 100% tumor incidence and the onset of tumor appeared within 7 weeks.

The compounds rutin and (+)- catechin did not influence tumor expression in both experiments.

Elangovan-V; Sekar-N; Govindasamy-S: Chemopreventive potential of dietary bioflavonoids against 20-methylcholanthrene-induced tumorigenesis. Cancer-Lett. 1994 Nov 25; 87(1): 107-13.

Cytotoxicity & Rutin


Hydroxyl radical (.OH) was generated by the Fenton system, and assayed by the determination of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) formed from the reaction of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with .OH. (+)-Catechin, (-)-epicatechin, 7,8-dihydroxy flavone, and rutin showed the .OH scavenging effect 100-300 times superior to that of mannitol, a typical .OH scavenger.

Ramanathan-R; Das-NP; Tan-CH: Effects of gamma-linolenic acid, flavonoids, and vitamins on cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation. Free-Radic-Biol-Med. 1994 Jan; 16(1): 43-8.



An experimental investigation was made of the influence of 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutin (HR) on the effect of indomethacin (1, 2 or 4 mg/kg i.p.) in inhibiting rat paw oedema. HR was given once daily during a 6-day pretreatment, with the final dose 90 minutes before the inflammatory reaction was induced.

In the group of HR-pretreated rats which also received indomethacin in a dose of 2 or 4 mg/kg,

the extent of the carrageenin-oedema was diminished significantly in comparison to that in experimental animals treated merely with indomethacin.

Blazso-G; Gabor-M: Influence of 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutin on the oedema-inhibiting effect of indomethacin. Acta-Pharm-Hung. 1994 Jul; 64(4): 123-4.

Electrochemistry & Rutin


The electrochemical properties of four structurally related flavonoids, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnose (quercitrin), quercetin-3-O-rutinose (rutin) and luteolin were investigated.

Hendrickson-HP; Kaufman-AD; Lunte-CE: Electrochemistry of catechol-containing flavonoids. J-Pharm-Biomed-Anal. 1994 Mar; 12(3): 325-34.

Immunotoxicity (Rutin)


To test the effect of purified polyunsaturated fatty acids on immune cells in vitro.

Linoleic and linolenic acids inhibited all of the immune responses.

Inhibition of lipid mediator production by indomethacin, quercetin, rutin, or nordihydroguariaretic acid, and addition of vitamins C and E with anti-oxidant activity failed to reverse the effects of linoleic acid. Thus, linoleic and linolenic acids appear to directly inhibit immune and tumor cells, at least under these conditions.



The efficacy of oxidation inhibition of five natural and synthetic antioxidants (BHT, BHA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), quercetin and rutin) was studied in emulsions. Linoleic acid was used as a reference.

The kAH characterizing the reaction of the antioxidant with the peroxyl radical decreases in the following order: (BHA) > (BHT) > (NDGA) > (quercetin) > (rutin).

Carlotti-ME; Gallarate-M; Gasco-MR; Trotta-M: Inhibition of lipoperoxidation of linoleic acid by five antioxidants of different lipophilicity. Pharmazie. 1994 Jan; 49(1): 49-52.



According to this study conducted on mice, rutin may contribute to the growth and spread of melanoma tumors. The influence of rutin on the growth rate and tumor weight of B16 melanoma was observed in mice. The mice were injected with a solution of rutin while the control groups received NaCl and DMSO. Increasing doses of rutin led to larger tumors and an increase in the number of lung metastases. At 10mg, rutin also ceased melanin formation by about 43%.

Drewa G, Schachtschabel DO, Palgan K, Grzanka A, Sujkowska R: The influence of rutin on the weight, metastasis and melanin content of B16 melanotic melanoma in C57BL/6 mice, Neoplasma 1998; 45(4): 266-71

Alkaloid Production (Rutin)

Alkaloid Production

Addition of micromolar concentrations of "quercetin" or "rutin" to suspension "cell" cultures of "Sanguinaria" canadensis L. ("bloodroot") induced the biosynthesis of "sanguinarine" and chelerythrine in a dose-dependent manner.

Mahady-GB; Beecher-CW: Quercetin-induced benzophenanthridine "alkaloid" production in suspension cell cultures of Sanguinaria canadensis. Planta-Med. 1994 Dec; 60(6): 553-7.

Gastric Lesions

Gastric Lesions

This study was designed to demonstrate the cytoprotective effect of Rutin against "ethanol"-induced gastric injury in rats and to determine whether this cytoprotective effect is mediated by
endogenous "prostaglandins".

Results show that Rutin has a cytoprotective effect against ethanol injury in the rat, but this property does not appear to be mediated by endogenous prostaglandins.

Perez-Guerrero-C; Martin-MJ; Marhuenda-E: Prevention by rutin of gastric "lesions" induced by ethanol in rats: role of endogenous prostaglandins. Gen-Pharmacol. 1994 May; 25(3): 575-80.

Lipid Peroxidation (Rutin)

Lipid Peroxidation

Gamma linolenic acid (GLA), a "polyunsaturated fatty acid", promoted lipid peroxidation in Raji "lymphoma" suspension cultures, in a dose (10 microM-100 microM) and time-dependent (4 h-48 h) manner.

The increase in lipid peroxidation could be correlated to an increase in cytotoxicity. The plant flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, butein, rutin) and the "fat"-"soluble" components ("retinol", retinoic acid, alpha-"tocopherol") by themselves did not affect lipid peroxidation in Raji cells. Quercetin, luteolin, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol were able to inhibit cell proliferation significantly.

Although GLA only decreased the cytotoxicity of retinol-treated cells, the latter compound was able to block the prooxidative action of GLA by scavenging the free radicals induced by it.

Quercetin at 50 and 100 microM exerted equipotent superoxide "anion" scavenging effects, but at the higher concentration it had no effect on lipid peroxidation. Although the bioactive test compounds are well known natural "antioxidants", interestingly, our data showed that their potent cytotoxic actions do not involve free radicals or lipid peroxidation reactions.

Hanasaki-Y; Ogawa-S; Fukui-S: The correlation between active oxygen scavenging and antioxidative effects of flavonoids. Free-Radic-Biol-Med. 1994 Jun; 16(6): 845-50.


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