Weight Reduction Diet
Weight Reduction Diet
Excess body fat is a pandemic health problem in the United States. This problem has been associated with increased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, maturity onset diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis and certain forms of cancer. Ideal body fat is 15% for males and 20% for females according to national statistics. A 10% increase of body fat has been shown to significantly increase the risk of many major degenerative diseases. A number of diet plans are available for proper weight loss. The measures of a successful and safe program are:
1. It primarily must result in fat, not muscle, loss.
2. It must prevent the excessive build-up of ketones
3. It must allow the patient to function without illness.
4. It must prevent nutritional deficiencies.
Persons on high-fat weight reduction diets (which are diuretic in nature) may lose weight quickly. These diets are dangerous, however, because most of this weight loss is due to water loss, not a decrease in body fat. Each pound of body fat represents 3,500 calories of stored energy. By reducing calorie intake by 500 calories per day, one pound of fat can be lost safely per week. Each 500 calorie additional reduction will promote an additional pound of fat loss per week. It has been found a high-protein reducing diet will prevent muscle protein loss while promoting body fat loss. The combination of protein and the sugar fructose in the diet encourages appetite suppression, and prevents excessive ketone build-up. This is the biochemical strategy which underlies the Protein Sparing Modified Fast (PSMF) using a high-protein, low-fat, low-calorie diet.
Different weight reduction diet plans have declared safe and successful including:
1. The Low Fat Diet (Pritikin)
2. The Eat to Win Diet with Exercise
3. The Vegetarian Diet
4. The High Fiber Diet
5 The High Protein-Low Calorie Diet (PSMF)
In evaluating a weight loss diet, the key questions are whether it contributes to selective fat loss while maintaining muscle (improvement in lean body mass) and whether it prevents the buildup of dangerous levels of ketones. Medical research has shown diets with less than 800 calories per day can be dangerous for some people over an extended period of time.
Because a weight loss diet is low calorie by definition, vitamin and mineral supplementation is required. Particular importance should be attached to adequacy of potassium, calcium and magnesium.
Weight reduction diets of 1,000 and 1,200 calories per day are provided as examples of mixed food approaches to fat loss. The other diets previously mentioned can also be used as weight loss diets. Poorly balanced protein powders such as collagen based products should be avoided for safety. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) should be at least 2.4 to be a good meal replacement protein supplement.
Sample Menu Diet: 1,000 Calories
1/2 grapefruit 1 slice toasted whole wheat bread 1/2 c skim milk 1 tsp margarine or butter
1 apple 2 oz sliced turkey breast Sliced lettuce & tomato 1 tsp mayonnaise 1/2 c steamed carrot 1 slice whole wheat bread 1/2 c skim milk
2 oz broiled halibut 1/2 c brown rice 1/2 c steamed broccoli 1/2 banana 1/2 c skim milk 2 tsp oil & vinegar dressing 1 cup salad: romaine, or Boston lettuce; sliced carrot, cucumber, mushroom, bell pepper, celery
1/2 c skim milk
3 rye wafers
Sample Menu Diet: 1,200 Calories
1/2 grapefruit 1/2 c oatmeal 1/2 c skim milk 1 tsp margarine or butter 1 slice toasted whole wheat bread
2 oz sliced turkey breast 2 slice whole wheat bread Sliced lettuce & tomato 1 tsp mayonnaise 1/2 c steamed carrot 1 apple 1/2 c skim milk
3 oz broiled halibut 1/2 c brown rice 1/2 c steamed broccoli 1/2 banana 1/2 c skim milk 2 tsp oil & vinegar dressing 1 c salad: romaine or Boston lettuce; sliced carrot, cucumber, mushroom, bell pepper, celery
Calories: 1200 Fat: 15% Protein: 15% Cholesterol: 200mg Carbohydrate: 70% Fiber: 12g
Food Exchange List
Bread and Cereal Exchange List: 6 per day
Lentil Whole wheat bread Sweet potato Cereals Beans (dried) Grains Green pea Pastas Popcorn (without added fat) Potato
Doughnuts Fiber-free breads Cakes Fiber-free cereals Pies Fiber-free grains Fiber-free pastas
Fat Exchange List: 3 per day
Use in very limited quantities
Margarine Butter Mayonnaise Vegetable Oils
Avocados Nuts Any rich sauce Gravy
Fruit Exchange List: 1,000 calories - 3 per day. 1,200 - 4 per day
Fresh and frozen fruits (preferably whole, as dietary fiber contained therein provides satiety)
Sweetened or dried fruits
Meat and Meat Substitute Exchange List: 5 per day
Any lean meat Ricotta - part skim Lean fish Lean shellfish Egg (hard-boiled) Cottage cheese - 2% fat Lean poultry Mozzarella - part skim
Luncheon meat Smoked or processed meat Mackerel Smoked or processed fish Salmon Fish packed in oil All cheeses not noted above
Milk Exchange List: 2 per day
Evaporated skim milk Yogurt - lowfat plain Yogurt - lowfat fruit Buttermilk made from milk - 2% fat
Vegetable Exchange List: 2 per day
All fresh, frozen and canned vegetables, both whole and juice
Miscellaneous Exchange List
Homemade soups made from fat-free broth or skim milk
Any non-diet cola drink
Note: Include 6 to 8 cups of fluids, such as water, per day.
The number of food exchange list units differ, depending on the number calories in the diet.
Blackburn, G.L., G. Bray. Management of Obesity by Severe Caloric Restriction. P.S.G., Littleton, Ma, 1985.
Chicago Dietetic Association and the South Suburban Dietetic Association of Cook and Will counties. 1981. Manual of Clinical Dietetics. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.
Committee of Dietetics of the Mayo Clinic. 1971. Mayo Clinic Diet Manual, 4th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. 67 pp.
Iowa Dietetics Association. 1984. Simplified Diet Manual: with Meal Patterns, 5th ed. Iowa State University Press; Ames, Iowa. 108 pp.
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