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Herbal

Herbal

Bearberry Leaves

Bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi)

Parts Used
Leaves

Components

ArbutinMethylarbutin
FlavonoidsTannins
Gallic acidsEgallic acids



Activities
Diuretic
Anticeptic
Prevents kidney and bladder infections
Helps reduce accumulations of uric acid

Blue Vervain

Blue vervain - Verbena officinalis

Parts Used
Leaves
Flowering heads

Components
Tannin

Activities
Astringent
Diaphoretic
Antispasmodic
Improves circulation of the blood
Improves functioning of the joints

Capsicum Fruit

Capsicum fruit - Capsicum annuum

Parts Used
Fruit, ripe and dried

Components
Capsaicin, a red coloring matter
Oleic
Palmitic acid
Stearic acid

Activities
Weak digestion and loss of appetite
Non-narcotic local stimulant

Cornsilk

Cornsilk (Zea mays)

Parts Used
Flower Pistils

Components

Maizenic acid Fixed oil
ResinChlorophyll
CelluloseSugar-gum extractive albuminoids
Phlobaphine saltWater



Activities
Demulcent
Diuretic
Helpful in urinary problems such as cystitis; pyelitis, oliguria
Helpful in edemous conditions

Couch Grass Leaves

Couch Grass leaves (Agropyron repens)

Parts Used
Dried rhizome
Leaves

Components

TriticinSugar
InositolSalts of potassium
MucilageAcidmalates
A volatile oil with antibiotic properties



Activities
Diuretic
Supports the urinary system

Damiana

Damiana - Turnera diffusa

Parts Used
Leaves

Components
A greenish volatile oil, smelling like chamomile
Amorphous bitter principle Damianin
Resins
Tannin

Activities
Stimulant
Tonic
Acts directly on the reproductive organs

Dandelion

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)

Parts used
Leaves
Roots
Flowers - powdered

Components

InulinTaraxacin, a bitter principle
TaraxerolTaraxerin, a acrid resin
Flavoxanthin3,4 dioxycinnamic acid
Citric acidPhenyloxyacetic acid
RiboflavinSitosterol
SitosterinStigmasterol
CoumesterolVitamin B
Vitamin CProvitamin A



Activities
Mild laxative
Promotes the formation of bile
Removes excess water from the body

Fenugreek Seed

Fenugreek seed - Trigonella Foenum-graecum

Parts Used
Seeds

Components

MucilageBitter fixed oil
TrigonellineCholine
PhosphatesLecithin
NecleoalbuminIron
TrimethylamineNeruine
Betain



Activities
Strong mucilage        Mild stimulant
Supports liver and pancreas metabolism

Flax Seed

Flax seed (Linum usitatissiumum)

Parts used

SeedsSeed-oil
StemPowdered oil-exhausted seed



Components
Fixed oil (30-40%) comprising the glycerides of linoleic, linolenic and other fatty acids, stearic and palmitic acids, mucilage (6%)
A cyanogenic glycoside, linamarine
Pectin
Other nitrogenous substances

Activities

LaxativeAnti-inflammatory
DemulcentSoothes mucous membranes

Fleece Flower Root

Fleece flower root - Polygonum multiflorum

Parts Used
Tuberous root

Components

AnthraquinonesChrysophanol
RheinChrysophanic acid
TanninsLecithin



Activities
Anemia
Constipation
Hypercholesterolemia

Ginkgo

Ginkgo - Ginkgo biloba

Parts Used
Seed

Components

StarchFat
ProteinCytokinin-like substances
GibberellinHydroginkgolinic acid
Ginkgolic acidBilobol
Ginnol



Activities
Improves functions of the respiratory system
Improves resistance

Greater Burdock Root

Greater Burdock root (Arctium lappa)

Parts used
Roots - powdered

Components

InulinBitter principle
Volatile oilResin
Several antibiotic substances



Activities

RheumatismIncreases resistance to infection
GoutLung disease
Mild laxativePerspiration inducer

Horsetail

Horsetail - Equisetum arvense

Parts Used
Herb

Components

ThymineFerulic acid
Caffeic acidVanillin
TanninResin
Bioavailable silicon



Activities
Diuretic
Astringent

Hydrangea

Hydrangea root (Hydrangea arborescens)

Parts Used
Dried rhizome
Roots

Components

ResinsGumSugar
StarchAlbumenSoda
LimePotassiumMagnesium
Sulphuric acid Phosphoric acidProtosalt of iron
Hydrangin



Activities
Diuretic
Tonic
Supports kidney function

Licorice Root

Licorice root - Glycyrrhiza glabra

Parts used
Dried root-stock
Extract

Components

ProteinStarch (30%)
ResinAsparagine
Volatile oilSaponins
Fat Sucrose and dextrose (5-10%)Flavonoid glycosides, liquiritoside
Glycrrrhizin (5-10%), calcium & potassium salts of glycyrrhizic acid




Activities

DemulcentExpectorantMild laxative
SpasmolyticAnti-inflammatory

Marshmallow Root

Marshmallow root (Althaea officinalis)

Parts Used
Roots
Leaves
Flowers - powdered

Components

SucroseLecithin
Phytosterol Asparagin
30% mucilage comprising glucosan and xylan



Activities

DemulcentEmollient
Supports gastrointestinal tract

Milk Thistle Fruit

Milk Thistle fruit (Silybum marianum)

Parts used

FruitPowedered seed
ShootsWhole & dried flowering plant
Root Fresh and dried leaves
Stems



Components

Essential oilTyramine
HistaminBitter principles
A flavonoid, silymarine



Activities

CholereticLiver poisoning
HepatitisLiver regeneration
Cirrhosis

Oat

Oat - Avena sativa

Parts Used
Seeds

Components

StarchGluten
AlbumenSugar
Gum oilSalts



Activities

Mild nutritious alimentEasy digestion
Nervine stimulant Antispasmodic

Psyllium Husk

Psyllium husk (Plantago psyllium)

Parts used
Husk

Components

PlantagoninIndicain
IndicaminMucus containing polysaccharides
CelluloseMucus containing polyuronides
Beta-sitosterol Stigmasterol
Campesterol



Activities
Intestinal lubricant
Mild laxative
Increases threshold for stress of the gastrointestinal system

Red Clover Flower

Red clover flower (Trifolium pratense)

Parts Used
Flower - powdered/extract

Components

Salicylic acidSugars, including rhamnose
IsorhamnetinA phytosterol glucoside
TrifolianolQuercitin glucoside
Essential oilPhenolic glycoside, trifolin
Coumaric acid Hydroxymethyloxyflavone, pratol
A plant oestrogen, coumestrol



Activities

DiureticExpectorant
Anti-spasmodicLiver stimulant
Gallbladder stimulant

Sarsaparilla

Sarsaparilla root - Smilax officinalis

Parts Used
Root - powdered

Components

SalseparinStarch
Coloring matterEssential oil
Chloride of potassiumBassorin
AlbumenPectic acid
Ascitic acid Salts of lime
PotassiumMagnesium



Activities
Support of joints and connective tissue
Support of respiratory function

Saw Palmetto

Saw palmetto - Serenoa serrulata

Parts Used
Partially-dried ripe fruit

Components

Volatile oilFixed oil
GlucoseFree acids
Ethly esters of acids



Activities
Tissue builder (anabolic)

Siberian Ginseng

Siberian ginseng - Eleutherococcus senticosus

Parts Used
Roots

Components

EleutherosidesAlkaloid aralin
LipoidsDoes not contain saponins



Activities
Improvement of general immune resistance and alertness

Teasel Root

Teasel root - Dipsacus asper

Parts Used
Root

Components
Alkaloid
Essential oil
Vitamin E

Activities
Anti-rheumatic
Strengthens the liver and kidney

Wild Yam Root

Wild yam root - Dioscorea villosa

Parts Used
Dried rhizome

Components
Saponin
Dioscorein

Activities
Preventing involuntary contraction of muscle (spasm)

Wood Betony

Wood betony - Betonica officinalis

Parts Used
Herb

Components

TanninBitter principle
StachydrinResins
BetaineCholin



Activities
Astringent
Stimulant
Improves blood circulation and liver function

Yerba Mate

Yerba mate - Ilex paraguaiensis

Parts Used
Leaves

Components

CaffeineTannin
AshInsoluble matter



Activities

TonicDiaphoretic
Stimulant Improves alertness

Yohimbe

Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe or Corynanthe Yohimbe K. Schum)

Parts of plant used
Reddish-brown bark pieces
Egg-shaped leaves

(Both sources contain from 0.3 to 1.5% (w/w) yohimbine) The formation of the precursors of alkaloids and finally of alkaloids occurs in Corynanthe Yohimbe K. Schum in the leaves. Accumulation of alkaloids in the rind takes place afterwards. The presence of yohimbine and other alkaloids in the leaves of this plant have been discovered by Thoms in 1897.

Components

AjmalicinAlloyohimibine Corynanthein
PseudoyohimbineDihydrocoynanthein Corynanthin
Yohimbine (or corynine)



Yohimbine is the most active compound of the plant.

Activities
Sympathicolytic (alpha-adrenolytic)
Vasodilating
Hypotonic (lowering blood pressure)

References

Chrubasik, S.U.J., Kompendium der Phytotherapie. Hippokrates Verlag GmbH, Stuttgart, 1983.

Grieve, M., A Modern Herbal. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1971.

Magic and Medicine of Plants. The Reader's Digest Association, Inc. Pleasantville, New York; Montreal. 1986.

Steinmetz, E.F., Codex Vegetabilis. Amsterdam. 1957.

Yeung, Him-che., Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Los Angeles. January 1985.

Friedrich Czapek, Biochemie der Pflanzen, Vol. 3, p.313. Gustav Fischer, Jena 1921.