White Willow Standardized Extract
White Willow Standardized Extract
White Willow, Pussy Willow
PART OF PLANT USED
The bark of the common White Willow tree has been known since antiquity for its pain-relieving and fever-reducing properties. In the early 19th century a French chemist extracted the principal active ingredient from White Willow and named it Salicin. At the end of the century, Felix Hofmann, a chemist at the Bayer company in Germany developed the world's most used medication, aspirin or acetyl-salicylic acid. Recently, however, pain sufferers are returning to the natural source to avoid the potentially dangerous side effects of aspirin.
Temporary use in pain: headache, menstrual pain, toothache, arthritis, gout, angina, sore muscles
Antiseptic for urinary tract infections
Fevers, rheumatic conditions
Connective tissue disorders
As an astringent for dysentery, diarrhea, intestinal worms and parasites
Willow bark has long been used for fevers and inflammations. In addition, the astringency of the glycosides makes willow bark useful as an antiseptic and astringent. Extracts and infusions of the bark have been used for cleansing the scalp and skin, for treating dandruff, and for treating corns and growths.
phenolic glycosides, (salicin, salicortin, tremulacin, fragilin, salicoylsalicin, salireposide), tannins, syringin, flavonoid glycosides (isorhamnetin, quercetin)
White Willow contains bitter phenolic and flavonoid glycosides. The most famous and active phenolic glycoside is salicin, which is a monoglycoside of salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is a weak anti-inflammatory agent but is converted by the liver to acetyl-salicylic acid. The acetylated version has aspirin's more effective anti-inflammatory activity without its gastrointestinal toxicity. The salicylates inhibit the activity of the cyclo-oxgenase enzyme and thus inhibit the production of prostaglandins and other inflammatory molecules.
TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRA-INDICATIONS
None known. Individuals allergic to salicylates should avoid willow bark.
DIRECTIONS FOR USE
60-120 mg. salicin
750-1500 mg./day extract
Rosemary Leaf, Skullcap, Blue Vervain
The bark is peeled from the trees without damaging them and dried, then extracted with 80% ethanol and 20% water, followed by a pH adjustment and evaporation at room temperature at reduced pressure.
ANALYSIS STANDARDIZED EXTRACT
Product Willow Bark Type Standardized extract Standardization 7.8% Salicin (HPLC) Character light yellow fine powder Loss on drying 4.4% m/m Preserving Agent none Microbiological Content Aerobic microorg. 180n / g molds/yeasts <10 n /g enterobacteria neg.
Julkunen-Tiito, R. & Tahvanainen, J. (1989) The effect of sample preparation method of extractable phenolics of Salicaceae species. Planta Medica 55:55.
Mowrey, D. (1986) The Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine. Cormorant Books.
Vane, J.R. (1971) Salicylates. Nature 231:232.
Weiner, M. (1990) Weiner's Herbal. Mill Valley: Quantum Books.
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